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Summary

SwOS Lite is an operating system designed specifically for the administration of MikroTik CSS610 series switch products. CSS610 series switches support only SwOS Lite operating system.

The main differences compared to CSS3xx series switches are:

  • unsupported Independent VLAN Learning;
  • unsupported VLAN mode "enabled";
  • unsupported ACL Rate limiting;
  • supported Port Egress Rate limiting

CSS610 series features

FeaturesDescription
Forwarding
  • Full non-blocking wirespeed switching
  • Up to 16k MAC entries in the Host table
  • Forwarding Database works based only on SVL
  • Port Isolation
  • Jumbo frame support - 10218 bytes
Spanning Tree Protocol
  • RSTP support
Link Aggregation
  • Supports 802.3ad LACP groups
  • Supports static link aggregation groups
  • Up to 16 link aggregation groups
  • Up to 8 member ports per a group
  • Hardware automatic failover and load balancing
Multicast Forwarding
  • IGMP Snooping support
  • Unknown Multicast Filtering
Mirroring
  • Port-based mirroring
VLAN
  • Fully compatible with IEEE802.1Q
  • Port-based VLAN
  • Up to 250 VLAN entries (limited by SwOS)
  • VLAN filtering
Security
  • Port Lock
  • Broadcast Storm Control
  • DHCP & PPPoE Snooping
Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Ingress traffic limiting
  • Egress traffic limiting
Access Control List
  • Ingress ACL tables
  • Up to 32 ACL rules (limited by SwOS)
  • Classification based on ports, L2, L3, L4 protocol header fields
  • ACL actions include filtering, forwarding, and modifying the protocol header fields

Connecting to the Switch


Open your web browser and enter the IP address of your switch (192.168.88.1 by default) and a login screen will appear. The switch can also run a DHCP client, see if a different IP address has been assigned by the DHCP server.

SwOS default IP address: 192.168.88.1, user name: admin and there is no password.

MikroTik Neighbor Discovery can be used to discover the IP address of the Mikrotik switch. LLDP is not supported.

Interface Overview


SwOS interface menu consists of multiple tabs depending on the device model. These are all possible SwOS menus: Link, PoE, SFP, Port Isolation, LAG, Forwarding, RSTP, Stats, Errors, Hist, VLAN, VLANs, Hosts, IGMP, SNMP, ACL, System, Health and Upgrade.

Description of buttons in SwOS configuration tool:

  • Append - add a new item to the end of the list
  • Apply All - applies current configuration changes
  • Cut - removes an item from the list
  • Clear - reset properties of the item
  • Discard Changes - removes unsaved configuration
  • Insert - add a new item to the list (places it before current item)
  • Sort - sort VLAN table by VLAN-IDs; sort host table by MAC addresses
  • Change Password - changes the password of the switch
  • Logout - logout from the current switch
  • Reboot - reboot the switch
  • Reset Configuration - reset configuration back to factory defaults
  • Choose File - browse for upgrade or backup file
  • Upgrade - upgrade the firmware of the switch using the selected file
  • Download & Upgrade - automatically try to download and upgrade the firmware, the PC which is running a web browser should be able to access the Internet
  • Restore Backup - restore switch using a selected backup file
  • Save Backup - generate and download the backup file from the switch


Each RouterBoard switch series device has its own firmware which cannot be installed on other series models!

  • CSS610-1Gi-7R-2S+ supports SwOS Lite v2.12 and newer.
  • CSS610-8G-2S+ supports SwOS Lite v2.12 and newer.

System


System Tab performs the following functions:

  • General information about switch
  • Switch management
  • Configuration reset
  • Backup and restore configuration


SwOS uses a simple algorithm to ensure TCP/IP communication - it just replies to the same IP and MAC address packet came from. This way there is no need for Default Gateway on the device itself.


PropertyDescription
Address AcquisitionSpecify which address acquisition method to use:
  • DHCP with fallback - switch is trying to request an IP address from a DHCP server. If the requests are unsuccessful, then the switch can be accessed using a Static IP Address value
  • static - address is set as a Static IP Address value
  • DHCP only - switch uses DHCP client to acquire address
Static IP AddressIP address of the switch in case of Address Acquisition is set as DHCP with fallback or static
IdentityName of the switch (for Mikrotik Neighbor Discovery protocol)
Allow FromIP address from which the switch is accessible. Default value is '0.0.0.0/0' - any address
Allow From PortsList of switch ports from which it is accessible
Allow From VLANVLAN ID from which the service is accessible. Make sure to first configure VLANs and VLAN pages
WatchdogEnable or disable system Watchdog. It will reset CPU of the switch in case of fault condition
Independent VLAN LookupEnable or disable independent VLAN lookup in the Host table for packet forwarding
IGMP SnoopingEnable or disable IGMP Snooping
Mikrotik Discovery ProtocolEnable or disable Mikrotik Neighbor Discovery protocol
MAC AddressMAC address of the switch (read-only)
Serial NumberSerial number of the switch (read-only)
Board NameMikroTik model name of the switch (read-only)
UptimeCurrent switch uptime (read-only)
TemperatureShows CPU temperature in celsius temperature scale (read-only)
PoE Out ModeSpecifies PoE-Out state (CSS610-1Gi-7R-2S+ model only)
  • auto-on - the board will attempt to detect if power can be applied to the port. For power-on to happen there should be resistance on spare pairs in the range from 3kΩ to 26.5kΩ
  • forced-on - detection range is removed. As a result power over Ethernet will be always on
  • off - all detection and power is turned off for this port
PoE Out StatusShows current PoE-Out status on port (read-only, CSS610-1Gi-7R-2S+ model only)

DHCP & PPPoE Snooping

PropertyDescription
Trusted PortsGroup of ports, which allows DHCP or PPPoE servers to provide a requested information. Mainly used to limit unauthorized servers to provide malicious information for users, access ports usually do not configure as trusted
Add Information OptionEnables or disables DHCP Option-82 information. When enabled, the Option-82 information (Agent Remote ID and Circuit ID) is added for DHCP packets received from untrusted ports. Can be used together with Option-82 capable DHCP server to assign IP addresses and implement policies

Password and Backup

Link


Link Tab allows you to configure each interface settings and monitor the link status.


PropertyDescription
EnabledEnable or disable port
NameEditable port name
Link StatusCurrent link status (read-only)
Auto NegotiationEnable or disable auto-negotiation
SpeedSpecify speed setting of the port (requires auto-negotiation to be disabled)
Full DuplexSpecify the duplex mode of the port (requires auto-negotiation to be disabled)
Flow control Tx/RxEnable or disable 802.3x Flow control

PoE


Devices with PoE-out support have some configuration options and certain monitoring features, like PoE-out current, voltage, etc. For a more detailed description, see PoE-Out manual.

SFP


SFP tab allows you to monitor the status of SFP/SFP+ modules.

Port Isolation


The Port Isolation table allows or restricts traffic forwarding between specific ports. By default, all available switch chip ports can communicate with any other port, there is no isolation used. When the checkbox is enabled/ticked you allow to forward traffic from this port towards the ticked port. Below are some port isolation examples.

In some scenarios, you might need to isolate a group of devices from other groups. In this example devices on Port1-Port5 are not able to communicate with Port6-Port10 devices, and vice versa.

In some scenarios, you might need to forward all traffic to an uplink port while all other ports are isolated from each other. This kind of setup is calledPrivate VLAN configuration. The switch will forward all Ethernet frames only to the uplink Port1, while uplink can reach all other ports

Individual isolated Port1 (e.g. for management purpose), it cannot send or receive traffic from any other port


It is possible to check/uncheck multiple checkboxes by checking one of them and then dragging horizontally (Click & Drag).

(R)STP will only work properly in Private VLAN setups. In setups with multiple isolated switch groups (R)STP might not properly receive BPDUs and therefore fail to detect network loops.

LAG


IEEE 802.3ad (LACP) compatible link aggregation is supported, as well as static link aggregation to ensure failover and load balancing based only on Layer2 hashing. Up to 16 link aggregation groups with up to 8 ports per group are supported. Each individual port can be configured as Passive LACP, Active LACP, or a Static LAG port.


PropertyDescription
Mode (default: passive)Specify LACP packet exchange mode or Static LAG mode on ports:
  • Passive: Place port in listening state, use LACP only when its contrary port uses active LACP mode
  • Active: Prefer to start LACP regardless of contrary port mode
  • Static: Set port in a Static LAG mode
GroupSpecify a Static LAG group
Trunk (read-only)Represents group number port belongs to.
Partner (read-only)Represents partner mac-address.

Forwarding


Forwarding Tab provides advanced forwarding options among switch ports, port locking, port mirroring, bandwidth limit, and broadcast storm control features.


PropertyDescription
Port Lock
  • Port Lock - Enables or disables MAC address learning on this port. When the option is enabled, it will restrict MAC address learning and static MAC addresses should be configured. Any received frames with unknown source MAC address will be dropped
  • Lock On First - Allows to learn source MAC address from the first received frame, this property should be used together with Port Lock. Learning of the first MAC address will reset every time an interface status changes
Port Mirroring
  • Mirror Ingress - Whether traffic entering this port must be copied and forwarded to the mirroring target port
  • Mirror Egress - Whether traffic leaving this port must be copied and forwarded to the mirroring target port
  • Mirror To - Mirroring target port
Broadcast Storm Control
  • Storm Rate - Limit the number of broadcast packets transmitted by an interface. The rate is measured in bits per second (bps).
  • Include Unknown Unicast - Include unicast packets without an entry in the host table in Storm Rate limitation
Multicast Flood Control
  • Flood Unknown Multicast - Changes the multicast flood option on a switch port, only controls the egress traffic. When enabled, the bridge allows flooding multicast packets to the specified switch port, but when disabled, it restricts multicast traffic from being flooded. The setting affects all multicast traffic, this includes non-IP, IPv4, IPv6 and the link-local multicast ranges (e.g. 224.0.0.0/24 and ff02::1).
Bandwidth Limit
  • Ingress Rate - Limit traffic entering this port (bps)
  • Egress Rate - Limit traffic leaving this port (bps)


It is possible to limit ingress/egress traffic per port basis. The policer is used for ingress traffic, the shaper is used for egress traffic. The ingress policer controls the received traffic with packet drops. Everything that exceeds the defined limit will get dropped. This can affect the TCP congestion control mechanism on end hosts and achieved bandwidth can be actually less than defined. The egress shaper tries to queue packets that exceed the limit instead of dropping them. Eventually, it will also drop packets when the output queue gets full, however, it should allow utilizing the defined throughput better.

RSTP


Per-port and global RSTP configuration and monitoring are available in the RSTP menu.


PropertyDescription
Bridge Priority (hex)RSTP bridge priority for Root Bridge selection
Port Cost ModeThere are two methods for automatically detecting RSTP port cost depending on link speed.
  • short: 40G - 1; 10G - 2; 1G - 4; 100M - 10; 10M - 100
  • long: 40G - 500; 10G - 2000; 1G - 20000; 100M - 200000; 10M - 2000000
Root BridgeThe priority and MAC address of the selected Root Bridge in the network (read-only)
RSTPEnable or disable STP/RSTP functionality on this port
ModeShows STP/RSTP functionality mode on a specific port (read-only):
  • RSTP
  • STP
RoleShows specific port role (read-only):
  • root - port that is facing towards the root bridge and will be used to forward traffic from/to the root bridge
  • alternate - port that is facing towards root bridge, but is not going to forward traffic (a backup for root port)
  • backup - port that is facing away from the root bridge, but is not going to forward traffic (a backup for non-root port)
  • designated - port that is facing away from the root bridge and is going to forward traffic
  • disabled - port that is not strictly part of STP (RSTP functionality is disabled)
Root Path CostShows root path cost for ports that are facing root bridge (read-only)
Type
  • edge - ports that are not supposed to receive any BPDUs, should be connected to the end station (read-only)
  • point-to-point - ports that operate in full-duplex links, can be part of STP and operate in a forwarding state (read-only)
StateShows each port state (read-only):
  • forwarding - port participates in traffic forwarding and is learning MAC addresses, is receiving BPDUs
  • discarding - port does not participate in traffic forwarding and is not learning MAC addresses, is receiving BPDU
  • learning - port does not participate in traffic forwarding but is learning MAC addresses

Stats, Errors and Histogram


These menus provide detailed information about received and transmitted packets.


Statistics for SFP+ interface are cleared whenever an active SFP+ link is established.

VLAN and VLANs


VLAN configuration for switch ports.


PropertyDescription
VLAN Mode (disabled | optional | strict; Default: optional)VLAN filtering mode, these options are relevant to egress ports (except for strict mode).
  • disabled - VLAN table is not used. The switch discards packets with a VLAN tag on egress ports. If the packet has a VLAN tag and the VLAN ID matches Default VLAN ID on egress ports, then with VLAN Receive=any the switch will remove the VLAN tag and forward the packet.
  • optional - Disabled VLAN filtering. Handle packets with VLAN tag ID that is not present in the VLAN table just like packets without VLAN tag.
  • strict - Enabled VLAN filtering with additional ingress filtering, which checks if the ingress port is a member of the received VLAN ID in the VLAN table. Received packets on the ingress port with a VLAN ID that does not match with the VLAN table will be dropped. Default VLAN ID must be specified for access ports since it will be used to tag ingress traffic and untag egress traffic for a certain port.
VLAN Receive (any | only tagged | only untagged; Default: optional)Ingress traffic filtering based on VLAN tag presence.
  • any - Allows tagged and untagged packets on a certain port
  • only tagged - Allows only packets with a VLAN tag
  • only untagged - Allows only packets without a VLAN tag
Default VLAN ID (integer: 1..4095; Default: 1)VLAN ID which will be assigned on ingress traffic. Only has an effect on untagged traffic, it will be ignored for tagged traffic. This parameter is usually used to allocate access ports with specific VLAN. It is also used to untag egress traffic if the packet's VLAN ID matches Default VLAN ID.
Force VLAN ID (integer: yes | no; Default: no)Assigns the Default VLAN ID value to all ingress traffic (tagged and untagged). Has effect in all VLAN Modes. If the port receives tagged traffic and Default VLAN ID is set to 1, then with this parameter the egress traffic will be untagged.


VLAN membership configuration for switch ports.


PropertyDescription
VLAN ID (integer: 1..4095; Default: 0)VLAN ID to which assign ports.
IGMP Snooping (yes | no; Default: no)Enables or disables IGMP Snooping on the defined VLAN. When enabled, the switch will listen to IGMP Join and Leave requests from the defined VLAN and only forward traffic to ports, which have sent IGMP membership requests from the defined VLAN. When disabled, the switch will flood all VLAN member ports with Multicast traffic.
Members (ports; Default: none)Group of ports, which are allowed to forward traffic on the defined VLAN.

VLAN Configuration Example

Trunk and Access Ports

1. In the VLANs menu add VLAN entries and specify port membership.

2. In the VLAN menu configure Default VLAN ID on planned access ports (untagged), select the correct VLAN Receive setting (Port2 only tagged, Port6-8 only untagged) and enable strict VLAN filtering to ensure only allowed VLANs can pass through the ports.

Trunk and Hybrid Ports

1. In the VLANs menu add VLAN entries and specify port membership.

2. In the VLAN menu configure Default VLAN ID on planned hybrid ports (for untagged VLAN), select the correct VLAN Receive setting (Port2 only tagged, Port6-8 any) and enable strict VLAN filtering to ensure only allowed VLANs can pass through the ports.

Management access

In this example, switch management access on VLAN 200 will be created. The configuration scheme is the same as "Trunk and Access Ports" and 1., 2. configuration steps are identical. The additional 3rd step requires to specify the management VLAN ID in the System menu. After applying the configuration, switch will only respond to tagged VLAN 200 packets on Port2 and untagged packets on Port6. The DHCP client will also work in the specified VLAN ID.

Changing management VLAN can completely disable access to the switch management if VLAN settings are not correctly configured. Save a configuration backup before changing this setting and use Reset in case management access is lost.

Hosts


This table represents dynamically learned MAC address to port mapping entries. It can contain two kinds of entries: dynamic and static. Dynamic entries get added automatically, this is also called a learning process: when a switch receives a packet from a certain port, it adds the packet's source MAC address and port it received the packet from to the host table, so when a packet comes in with a certain destination MAC address it knows to which port it should forward the packet. If the destination MAC address is not present in the host table then it forwards the packet to all ports in the group. Dynamic entries take about 5 minutes to time out.

Static entries will take over dynamic if dynamic entry with same mac-address already exists. Also by adding a static entry you get access to more functionality.


PropertyDescription
PortsPorts the packet should be forwarded to
MACMAC address
Port (read-only)Ports the packet should be forwarded to
MAC (read-only)Learned MAC address

IGMP Snooping


IGMP Snooping which controls multicast streams and prevents multicast flooding. The feature allows a switch to listen in the IGMP conversation between hosts and routers.

Enable this option under the System tab.


Available IGMP snooping data can be found under the IGMP tab.

It is possible to enable IGMP Snooping for a specific VLAN ID under the VLANs menu.

SNMP


SwOS supports SNMP v1 and uses IF-MIB, SNMPv2-MIB, BRIDGE-MIB and MIKROTIK-MIB (only for health, PoE-out and SFP diagnostics).

Available SNMP data:

  • System information
  • System uptime
  • Port status
  • Interface statistics
  • Host table information


PropertyDescription
EnabledEnable or disable SNMP service
CommunitySNMP community name
Contact InfoContact information for the NMS
LocationLocation information for the NMS

ACL and ACL Stats Tabs


An access control list (ACL) rule table is a very powerful tool allowing wire-speed packet filtering, forwarding, and VLAN tagging based on L2,L3, and L4 protocol header field conditions. Each rule contains a conditions part and an action part.

Conditions part parameters

PropertyDescription
FromA port that packet came in from
MAC SrcSource MAC address and mask
MAC DstDestination MAC address and mask
EthertypeProtocol encapsulated in the payload of an Ethernet Frame
VLAN

VLAN header presence:

  • any
  • present
  • not present
VLAN IDVLAN tag ID
PriorityPriority in VLAN tag
IP Src (IP/netmask:port)Source IPv4 address, netmask, and L4 port number
IP Dst (IP/netmask:port)Destination IPv4 address, netmask, and L4 port number
Protocol (integer)IP protocol
DSCPIP DSCP field

Action part parameters

PropertyDescription
Account asSelect the number where matched packets will be counted
Redirect ToForce new packets destination port
MirrorClones packet and sends it to mirror-target port
DropDrop packet
Set VLAN IDChanges the VLAN tag ID, if VLAN tag is present
PriorityChanges the VLAN tag priority bits, if VLAN tag is present
DSCPChanges the IP DSCP field

Each ACL rule can be selected to a specific counter where matched packets will be counted.

Reset and Reinstall


The CSS610 have built-in backup SwOS firmware which can be loaded in case standard firmware breaks or upgrade fails:

  • Holding Reset button for few seconds while the device is booting will reset configuration and load backup firmware.
  • After loading backup firmware, it is possible to connect to 192.168.88.1 (or leased address from a DHCP server) using a web browser and install new SwOS firmware.