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Features

FeaturesDescription
Forwarding
  • Full non-blocking wirespeed switching
  • Up to 2k MAC entries in the Host table
  • Forwarding Database works based on SVL or IVL
  • Port Isolation
  • Port Lock
  • Jumbo frame support - 9198 bytes
Spanning Tree Protocol
  • RSTP support
Multicast Forwarding
  • IGMP Snooping support
Mirroring
  • Port-based mirroring
VLAN
  • Fully compatible with IEEE802.1Q
  • Port-based VLAN
  • VLAN filtering
Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Ingress traffic limiting (by ACL)
  • Egress traffic limiting
Access Control List
  • Ingress ACL tables
  • Up to 32 ACL rules (limited by SwOS)
  • Classification based on ports, L2, L3, L4 protocol header fields
  • ACL actions include filtering, forwarding, and modifying the protocol header fields

Connecting to the switch


Open your web browser and enter the IP address of your switch (192.168.88.1 by default) and a login screen will appear. The switch can also run a DHCP client, see if a different IP address has been assigned by the DHCP server.

SwOS default IP address: 192.168.88.1, user name: admin and there is no password.

MikroTik Neighbor Discovery can be used to discover the IP address of the Mikrotik switch. LLDP is not supported.

Interface Overview


SwOS interface menu consists of several tabs: Link, SFP, Forwarding, RST, Statistics, Errors, VLAN, VLANs, Hosts, IGMP Groups, SNMP, ACL, System and Upgrade.

Description of buttons in SwOS configuration tool:

  • Append - add a new item to the end of the list
  • Apply All - applies current configuration changes
  • Cut - removes an item from the list
  • Clear - reset properties of the item
  • Discard Changes - removes unsaved configuration
  • Insert - add a new item to the list (places it before current item)
  • Sort - sort VLAN table by VLAN-IDs; sort host table by MAC addresses
  • Change Password - changes the password of the switch
  • Logout - logout from the current switch
  • Reboot - reboot the switch
  • Reset Configuration - reset configuration back to factory defaults
  • Choose File - browse for upgrade or backup file
  • Upgrade - upgrade the firmware of the switch using the selected file
  • Download & Upgrade - automatically try to download and upgrade the firmware, the PC which is running a web browser should be able to access the Internet
  • Restore Backup - restore switch using a selected backup file
  • Save Backup - generate and download backup file from the switch


Each RouterBOARD switch series have their own firmware which cannot be installed on other series models! CSS106-5G-1S (RB260GS) and CSS106-1G-4P-1S (RB260GSP) supports SwOS v2.0 and newer. When upgrading the device, it will first load primary firmware and then make an upgrade. In case a wrong firmware file is chosen, the device will continue to operate with primary firmware and you will be able to choose the correct file.

System


System Tab performs the following functions:

  • General information about switch
  • Switch management
  • Configuration reset
  • Backup and restore configuration


SwOS uses a simple algorithm to ensure TCP/IP communication - it just replies to the same IP and MAC address packet came from. This way there is no need for Default Gateway on the device itself.



PropertyDescription
Address AcquisitionSpecify which address acquisition method to use:
  • DHCP with fallback - switch is trying to request an IP address from a DHCP server. If the requests are unsuccessful, then the switch can be accessed using a Static IP Address value
  • static - address is set as a Static IP Address value
  • DHCP only - switch uses DHCP client to acquire address
Static IP AddressIP address of the switch in case of Address Acquisition is set as DHCP with fallback or static
IdentityName of the switch (for Mikrotik neighbor discovery protocol)
Allow FromIP address or network from which the switch is accessible. Default value is '0.0.0.0/0' - any address.
Allow From PortsList of switch ports from which the service is accessible
Allow From VLANVLAN ID from which the service is accessible. Make sure to first configure VLANs and VLAN pages
WatchdogEnable or disable system watchdog. It will reset CPU of the switch in case of fault condition
Independent VLAN LookupEnable or disable independent VLAN lookup in the Host table for packet forwarding
IGMP SnoopingEnable or disable IGMP Snooping
IGMP Fast LeaveEnables or disables IGMP fast leave feature on the switch port. This property only has an effect when IGMP Snooping is enabled
Mikrotik Discovery ProtocolEnable or disable Mikrotik neighbor discovery protocol
Port1 PoE In Long CableIf enabled, it will turn off short detection on all PoE out ports to allow the use of longer ethernet cables. This is potentially dangerous setting and should be used with caution. (CSS106-1G-4P-1S model)
MAC AddressMAC address of the switch (read-only)
Serial NumberSerial number of the switch (read-only)
Board NameMikroTik model name (read-only)
VoltageShows the input voltage measured in volts (read-only, CSS106-1G-4P-1S model)
TemperatureShows PCB temperature in celsius temperature scale (read-only, CSS106-1G-4P-1S model)

Password and Backup

Link


Link Tab allows you to:

  • Configure Ethernet and SFP ports
  • Monitor status of Ethernet and SFP ports


PropertyDescription
EnabledEnable or disable port
NameEditable port name
Link StatusCurrent link status (read-only)
Auto NegotiationEnable or disable auto-negotiation (some SFP modules may require it disabled in order to work)
SpeedSpecify speed setting of the port (requires auto-negotiation to be disabled)
Full DuplexSpecify the duplex mode of the port (requires auto-negotiation to be disabled)
Flow controlEnable or disable 802.3x Flow control


Using SFP+ 1m/3m DAC cable or S-RJ01 module, the device always shows that the link is established even if nothing is connected on other end.

PoE

PoE settings change Power over Ethernet output on CSS106-1G-4P-1S port2-port5 and show PoE status and measurements.


PropertyDescription
PoE Out

Sets PoE out mode of the port:

  • off - all detection and PoE out is turned off
  • auto - detection is done regarding resistance on the spare pairs to check if the port has PoE capability. For a port to be turned on measured value should be within a range from 3kΩ to 26.5kΩ
  • on - PoE out is enabled regardless of the resistance on the port. Use this with caution as that can damage connected equipment!
  • calibr - manual port PoE out recalibration. It may be necessary if there are occasional problems with powering connected devices.
PoE PriorityPort priority for PoE out supply. If the installation is going over available power budged, the port with the lowest priority is going to be turned off first. 1 - the highest priority port; 4 - the lowest priority port
PoE Status

Current PoE out status of the port:

  • disabled - PoE out is turned off
  • waiting for load - "auto" mode detects out of range resistance to turn on PoE out
  • powered on - PoE out is turned on
  • short circuit - if it is detected, PoE out is turned off to ensure that there is no additional damage on the powered device and no damage on powering device
  • voltage too low - not enough voltage supplied to turn on the device with PoE out
  • current too low - not enough current supplied to turn on the device with PoE out
  • waiting for cable disconnect - manual recalibration with "calibr" has detected connected device and waits for disconnection to complete the recalibration process
PoE CurrentShows current usage on the port measured in milliamperes
PoE PowerShows PoE out power on the port measured in watts

SFP


The SFP tab allows you to monitor the status of SFP modules.

Forwarding


Forwarding Tab provides advanced forwarding options among switch ports, port isolation, port locking, port mirroring and egress bandwidth limit features. Ingress rate per port and rate for broadcast traffic can be configured with Access Control List by setting Rate. ACL must have one port per entry to provide bandwidth limiting properly.

PropertyDescription
ForwardingForwarding table - allows or restricts traffic flow between specific ports
Port Lock
  • Port Lock - Enables or disables MAC address learning on this port. When the option is enabled, it will restrict MAC address learning and static MAC addresses should be configured
  • Lock On First - enable or disable MAC address learning on this port (MAC address from the first received packet will still be learned)
Port Mirroring
  • Mirror Ingress - whether traffic entering this port must be copied and forwarded to the mirroring target port
  • Mirror Egress - whether traffic leaving this port must be copied and forwarded to the mirroring target port
  • Mirror To - mirroring target port
Bandwidth Limit
  • Egress Rate - limit traffic leaving this port (bps)

RSTP


Per-port and global RSTP configuration and monitoring are available in the RSTP menu.


PropertyDescription
RSTPEnable or disable STP/RSTP functionality on this port
ModeShows STP/RSTP functionality mode on a specific port (read-only):
  • RSTP
  • STP
RoleShows specific port role (read-only):
  • root - port that is facing towards the root bridge and will be used to forward traffic from/to the root bridge
  • alternate - port that is facing towards root bridge, but is not going to forward traffic (a backup for root port)
  • backup - port that is facing away from the root bridge, but is not going to forward traffic (a backup for non-root port)
  • designated - port that is facing away from the root bridge and is going to forward traffic
  • disabled - port that is not strictly part of STP (RSTP functionality is disabled)
Root Path CostShows root path cost for ports that are facing root bridge (read-only)
Type
  • edge - ports that are not supposed to receive any BPDUs, should be connected to end station (read-only)
  • point-to-point - ports that operates in full-duplex links, can be part of STP and operate in forwarding state (read-only)
StateShows each port state (read-only):
  • forwarding - port participates in traffic forwarding and is learning MAC addresses, is receiving BPDUs
  • discarding - port does not participate in traffic forwarding and is not learning MAC addresses, is receiving BPDU
  • learning - port does not participate in traffic forwarding, but is learning MAC addresses
Bridge Priority (hex)RSTP bridge priority for Root Bridge selection
Port Cost ModeThere are two methods for automatically detecting RSTP port cost depending on link speed.
  • short: 10G - 2; 1G - 4; 100M - 10; 10M - 100
  • long: 10G - 2000; 1G - 20000; 100M - 200000; 10M - 2000000
Root BridgeThe priority and MAC address of the selected Root Bridge in the network (read-only)

Statistics, Errors


Provides detailed information about received and transmitted packets.

VLAN and VLANs


VLAN configuration for switch ports.


PropertyDescription
VLAN Mode

VLAN mode for ingress port:

  • disabled - VLAN table is not used. switch ignores VLAN tag part of tagged packets
  • optional - Handle packets with VLAN tag ID that is not present in VLAN table just like packets without VLAN tag
  • enabled - Drop packets with VLAN tag ID that is not present in VLAN table. Packets without VLAN tag are treat as tagged packets with Default VLAN ID
  • strict - Same as enable, but also checks VLAN support for inbound interface (drop packets with VLAN tag ID and ingress port that are not present in VLAN table)
VLAN ReceiveDefines the type of allowed packets on ingress port:
  • any - allows tagged and untagged packets on a certain port
  • only tagged - allows only packets with a VLAN tag
  • only untagged - allows only packets without a VLAN tag
Default VLAN IDthe switch will treat both untagged and "Default VLAN ID" tagged ingress packets as they are tagged with this VLAN ID. It is also used to untag egress traffic if the packet's VLAN ID matches "Default VLAN ID". The VLAN tag itself will only be added if there is VLAN Header = add if missing specified on the egress port
Force VLAN IDWhether to apply Default VLAN ID to incoming packets with VLAN tag
VLAN Header
  • leave as is - if VLAN header is present it remains unchanged
  • always strip - if VLAN header is present it is removed from the packet
  • add if missing - if VLAN header is not present it is added to the packet (VLAN ID will be Default VLAN ID of ingress port)

CSS106 devices running SwOS version 2.12 can filter RSTP BPDU packets when enabling VLAN filtering on ports (VLAN Mode enabled or strict). With SwOS version 2.13, it is recommended to set VLAN Receive to any on trunk ports.

VLAN modes enabled and strict require VLAN ID 1 in VLANs table to allow access of untagged traffic to switch itself.

VLAN table specifies forwarding rules for packets that have an IEEE 802.1Q tag. Basically, the table contains entries that map specific VLAN tag IDs to a group of one or more ports. Packets with VLAN tags leave switch through one or more ports that are set in the corresponding table entry. VLAN table works together with destination MAC lookup to determine egress ports. VLAN table supports up to 250 entries.


PropertyDescription
VLAN IDVLAN ID of the packet
IVLEnables or disables independent VLAN learning (IVL)
IGMP SnoopingEnables or disables IGMP Snooping on the defined VLAN. When enabled, the switch will listen to IGMP Join and Leave requests from the defined VLAN and only forward traffic to ports, which have sent IGMP membership requests from the defined VLAN. When disabled, the switch will flood all VLAN member ports with Multicast traffic.
PortsEach port has individual VLAN header options for each VLAN ID. Depending on VLAN mode if lookup is done in this table, the egress action of packets is processed by this option. The egress option from the VLAN tab is ignored.

VLAN Configuration Examples

Trunk and Access Ports

1. In the System menu enable independent VLAN learning (IVL).

2. In the VLANs menu add VLAN entries, specify port membership, and enable IVL. The default "leave as is" port setting can be used, the tagging and untagging behavior can be changed with the "Default VLAN ID" setting, see the next step.

3. In the VLAN menu configure Default VLAN ID on planned access ports (untagged), select the correct VLAN Receive setting (Port2 only tagged, Port3-5 only untagged), and enable strict VLAN filtering to ensure only allowed VLANs can pass through the ports.

CSS106 devices running SwOS version 2.12 can filter RSTP BPDU packets when enabling VLAN filtering on ports (VLAN Mode enabled or strict). With SwOS version 2.13, it is recommended to set VLAN Receive to any on trunk ports.

Trunk and Hybrid Ports

1. In the System menu enable independent VLAN learning (IVL).

2. In the VLANs menu add VLAN entries, specify port membership, and enable IVL. The default "leave as is" port setting can be used, the tagging and untagging behavior can be changed with the "Default VLAN ID" setting, see the next step.

3. In the VLAN menu configure Default VLAN ID on planned hybrid ports (for untagged VLAN), select the correct VLAN Receive setting (Port2 only tagged, Port3-5 any), and enable strict VLAN filtering to ensure only allowed VLANs can pass through the ports.


CSS106 devices running SwOS version 2.12 can filter RSTP BPDU packets when enabling VLAN filtering on ports (VLAN Mode enabled or strict). With SwOS version 2.13, it is recommended to set VLAN Receive to any on trunk ports.

Management access

In this example, switch management access on VLAN 200 will be created. The configuration scheme is the same as "Trunk and Access Ports" and 1., 2., 3. configuration steps are identical. The additional 4th step requires specifying the management VLAN ID in the System menu. After applying the configuration, the switch will only respond to tagged VLAN 200 packets on Port2 and untagged packets on Port3. The DHCP client will also work in the specified VLAN ID.


Changing management VLAN can completely disable access to the switch management if VLAN settings are not correctly configured. Save a configuration backup before changing this setting and use Reset in case management access is lost.

Hosts


This table represents dynamically learned MAC address to port mapping entries. It can contain two kinds of entries: dynamic and static. Dynamic entries get added automatically, this is also called a learning process: when a switch receives a packet from a certain port, it adds the packet's source MAC address X and port it received the packet from to host table, so when a packet comes in with destination MAC address X it knows to which port it should forward the packet. If the destination MAC address is not present in the host table then it forwards the packet to all ports in the group (flood). Dynamic entries take about 5 minutes to time out.

CSS106 series switches support 2048 host table entries.


PropertyDescription
PortPorts the packet should be forwarded to (read-only)
MACLearned MAC address (read-only)
VLAN IDLearned VLAN ID (read-only)

Static Hosts

Static entries will take over dynamic if dynamic entry with same mac-address already exists. Also by adding a static entry you get access to some more functionality.


PropertyDescription
PortsPorts the packet should be forwarded to
MACMAC address
VLAN IDVLAN ID
DropPacket with certain MAC address coming from certain ports can be dropped
MirrorPacket can be cloned and sent to mirror-target port

IGMP Groups


IGMP Snooping which controls multicast streams and prevents multicast flooding is implemented in SwOS starting from version 2.5. The feature allows a switch to listen in the IGMP conversation between hosts and routers.

First, enable the option under the System tab.

Available IGMP snooping data can be found under IGMP Group tab.

Possibility to enable or disable IGMP Snooping for specific VLAN ID.

SNMP


SwOS supports SNMP v1 and uses IF-MIB, SNMPv2-MIB, BRIDGE-MIB and MIKROTIK-MIB (only for health, PoE-out, and SFP diagnostics).

Available SNMP data:

  • System information
  • System uptime
  • Port status
  • Interface statistics
  • Host table information


PropertyDescription
EnabledEnable or disable SNMP service
CommunitySNMP community name
Contact InfoContact information for the NMS
LocationLocation information for the NMS

ACL


An access control list (ACL) rule table is a very powerful tool allowing wire-speed packet filtering, forwarding, and VLAN tagging based on L2, L3, and L4 protocol header field conditions. SwOS allows you to implement a limited number of access control list rules (32 simple rules (only L2 conditions are used); 16 rules where both L2 and L3 conditions are used; or 8 advanced rules where all L2,L3, and L4 conditions are used). Each rule contains a conditions part and an action part.


Conditions parameters

PropertyDescription
FromThe port that packet came in from
MAC SrcSource MAC address and mask
MAC DstDestination MAC address and mask
EthertypeProtocol encapsulated in the payload of an Ethernet Frame
VLAN

VLAN header presence:

  • any
  • present
  • not present
VLAN IDVLAN tag ID
PriorityPriority in VLAN tag
IP Src (IP/netmask:port)Source IPv4 address, netmask, and L4 port number
IP Dst (IP/netmask:port)Destination IPv4 address, netmask, and L4 port number
ProtocolIP protocol
DSCPIP DSCP field

Action parameters

PropertyDescription
Redirect ToWhether to force new destination ports (If "Redirect To" is enabled and no ports are specified in "Redirect To Ports", a packet will be dropped )
Redirect To PortsRedirect destination ports
MirrorClones packet and sends it to mirror-target port
RateLimits bandwidth (bps)
Set VLAN IDChanges the VLAN tag ID, if VLAN tag is present
PriorityChanges the VLAN tag priority bits, if VLAN tag is present

Reset


The CSS106-5G-1S and CSS106-1G-4P-1S have built-in backup SwOS firmware which can be loaded in case standard firmware breaks or upgrade fails:

  • Holding Reset button for few seconds while the device is booting will reset configuration and load backup firmware.
  • After loading backup firmware, it is possible to connect to 192.168.88.1 (or leased address from a DHCP server) using web browser and install new SwOS firmware.