The wifiwave2 package beta offers a new wireless driver, supporting WifiWave2 is a software package that includes drivers, firmware and configuration utilities for compatible 802.11ax and 802.11ac Wave 2 features and an alternative configuration menu. Installing it disables other means of configuring wireless interfaces, including CAPsMAN.
It can be downloaded as part of the 'Extra Packages' archive for RouterOS 7.1beta3.
Note: Before trying the wifiwave2 package, make sure to back up any wireless and CAPsMAN configuration you may want to restore afterwards.
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The wifiwave2 package is compatible with IPQ4019 and QCA9984 wireless interfaces and is only available for ARM builds of RouterOS v7. It also requires 10MB of free space and at least 256MB of RAM.
As of the release of RouterOS 7.1beta3, this means it is compatible with 4 devices:
*Please note that the wifiwave2 package is not compatible with CAPsMAN.
**Note that the 2.4GHz wireless interface on the RB4011iGS+5HacQ2HnD is not compatible with the wifiwave2 package. It will not be usable with the package installed.
Wifiwave2 interfaces can be configured through the CLI in the '/interface/wifiwave2' menu. Configuration through GUIs of WinBox or WebFig is not currently supported.
Following is a non-exhaustive list of wifiwave2 interface properties.
band ( 2ghz-g | 2ghz-n | 2ghz-ax | 5ghz-a | 5ghz-ac | 5ghz-an | 5ghz-ax )
channel-width ( 20mhz | 20/40mhz | 20/40mhz-Ce | 20/40mhz-eC | 20/40/80mhz | 20/40/80+80mhz 20/40/80/160mhz )
Frequencies to use for control channel when operating as AP or frequencies to scan for APs on when operating as a station (client). Defaults to all supported channels in the given frequency band.
Note: unlike the standard wireless package wifiwave2 does not support operating on non-standard radio channels (channels without an official number e.g. 5200/ac/Ceee).
MAC address (BSSID) to use for an interface.
Hardware interfaces default to the MAC address of the associated radio interface.
Virtual interfaces are assigned MAC addresses are generated by
/interface/wifiwave2 set wifi1 disabled=no ssid=MikroTik \ security.authentication-types=wpa2-psk,wpa3-psk security.passphrase=8-63_characters
Opportunistic wireless encryption (OWE) allows wireless clients to enjoy encryption and management protection without requiring knowledge of a passphrase to connect. It is an improvement on open AP operating mode.
However, the OWE standard does not permit connections from devices that don't support it to prevent downgrade attacks. So to provide an open AP both for clients that don't support OWE and those that do, the following basic configuration is required.
/interface/wifiwave2 add master=wifi1 name=wifi1_owe ssid=MikroTik_OWE \ security.authentication-types=owe security.owe-tranistion-interface=wifi1 \ configuration.hide-ssid=yes set wifi1 ssid=MikroTik security.authentication-types="" security.owe-transition-interface=wifi1_owe enable wifi1,wifi1_owe
You can reset the configuration of a wifiwave2 interface by removing it ( e.g. /interface/wifiwave2/remove wifi1 ) and rebooting the device.
Information about the capabilities of each radio can be gained by running the `/interface/wifiwave2/radio print detail` command. Following is a list of radio parameters.
A unique identifier.
The registration table contains entries of associated wireless devices (both APs and stations) and provides information about their signal levels, data rates and other parameters when using the additional `/interface/wifiwave2/registration-table/print stats` parameter.comes preinstalled on our 802.11ax products. Additionally, some products which ship with the standard 'wireless' package, can replace it with wifiwave2.
It can be downloaded as part of the 'Extra Packages' archive for ARM and ARM64 releases of RouterOS 7.
Table of Contents
When using a graphical configuration tool (WinBox or WebFig), wifiwave2 interfaces can be configured using either the 'Wireless' or 'QuickSet' tabs.
When using a CLI, wifiwave2 interfaces can be configured in the '/interface/wifiwave2' menu.
Properties in this category configure an access point's interaction with AAA (RADIUS) servers.
Certain parameters in the table below take format-string as their value. In a format-string, certain characters are interpreted in the following way:
|a||Hexadecimal character making up the MAC address of the client device in lower case|
|A||Hexadecimal character making up the MAC address of the client device in upper case|
|i||Hexadecimal character making up the MAC address of the AP's interface in lower case|
|I (capital 'i')||Hexadecimal character making up the MAC address of the AP's interface in upper case|
|N||The entire name of the AP's interface (e.g. 'wifi1')|
|S||The entire SSID|
All other characters are used without interpreting them in any way. For examples, see default values.
Format for the value of the Called-Station-Id RADIUS attribute, in AP's messages to RADIUS servers. Default:II-II-II-II-II-II:S
|calling-format (format-string)||Format for the value of the Calling-Station-Id RADIUS attribute, in AP's messages to RADIUS servers. Default: AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA|
|interim-update (time interval)||Interval at which to send interim updates about traffic accounting to the RADIUS server. Default: 5m|
|mac-caching (time interval | 'disabled')|
Length of time to cache RADIUS server replies, when MAC address authentication is enabled.
Default value: disabled.
|name (string)||A unique name for the AAA profile. No default value.|
|nas-identifier (string)||Value of the NAS-Identifier attribute, in AP's messages to RADIUS servers. Defaults to the host name of the device (/system/identity).|
Format for value to use in calculating the value of the User-Password attribute in AP's messages to RADIUS servers when performing MAC address authentication.
Default value: "" (an empty string).
Format for the value of the User-Name attribute in APs messages to RADIUS servers when performing MAC address authentication.
Default value :
Properties in this category specify the desired radio channel.
|band (2ghz-g | 2ghz-n | 2ghz-ax | 5ghz-a | 5ghz-ac | 5ghz-an | 5ghz-ax)|
Supported frequency band and wireless standard. Defaults to newest supported standard.
|frequency (list of integers or integer ranges)|
For an interface in station mode, specifies frequencies on which to scan for APs.
Leave unset (default) to consider all frequencies supported by the radio and permitted by the applicable regulatory profille.
The parameter can contain 1 or more comma-separated values of integers or, optionally, ranges of integers denoted using the syntax RangeBeginning-RangeEnd:RangeStep
Examples of valid channel.frequency values:
|secondary-frequency (list of integers | 'disabled')|
Frequency (in MHz) to use for the center of the secondary part of a split 80+80MHz channel.
Only official 80MHz channels (5210, 5290, 5530, 5610, 5690, 5775) are supported.
Leave unset (default) for automatic selection of secondary channel frequency.
|skip-dfs-channels (10min-cac | all | disabled)|
Whether to avoid using channels, on which channel availability check (listening for presence of radar signals) is required.
|width ( 20mhz | 20/40mhz | 20/40mhz-Ce | 20/40mhz-eC | 20/40/80mhz | 20/40/80+80mhz | 20/40/80/160mhz)|
Width of radio channel. Defaults to widest channel supported by the radio hardware.
This section includes properties relating to the operation of the interface and the associated radio.
chains (list of integer 0..7 )
Radio chains to use for receiving signals. Defaults to all chains available to the corresponding radio hardware.
client-isolation (no | yes)
country (name of a country)
Determines, which regulatory domain restrictions are applied to an interface. Defaults to "United States".
Note: It is important to set this value correctly to comply with local regulations and ensure interoperability with other devices.
hide-ssid (no | yes)
|mode (ap | station)|
Interface operation mode
|rrm (no | yes)|
|ssid (string)||The name of the wireless network, aka the (E)SSID. No default value.|
|tx-chains (list of integer 0..7)||Radio chains to use for transmitting signals. Defaults to all chains available to the corresponding radio hardware.|
|tx-power (integer 0..40)||A limit on the transmit power (in dBm) of the interface. Can not be used to set power above limits imposed by the regulatory profile. Unset by default.|
Parameters relating to authentication.
authentication-types (list of wpa-psk, wpa2-psk, wpa-eap, wpa2-eap, wpa3-psk, owe, wpa3-eap, wpa3-eap-192)
Authentication types to enable on the interface.
The default value is an empty list (no authenticaion, an open network).
Configuring a passphrase, adds to the default list the wpa2-psk authentication method (if the interface is an AP) or both wpa-psk and wpa2-psk (if the interface is a station).
Configuring an eap-username and an eap-password adds to the default list wpa-eap and wpa2-eap authentication methods.
|dh-groups (list of 19, 20, 21)|
Identifiers of elliptic curve cryptography groups to use in SAE (WPA3) authentication.
|disable-pmkid (no | yes)||For interfaces in AP mode, disables inclusion of a PMKID in EAPOL frames. Disabling PMKID can cause compatibility issues with client devices which make use of it.|
|eap-accounting (no | yes)||Send accounting information to RADIUS server for EAP-authenticated peers. Default: no.|
|eap-anonymous-identity (string)||Optional anonymous identity for EAP outer authentication. No default value.|
|eap-certificate-mode (dont-verify-certificate | no-certificates | verify-certificate | verify-certificate-with-crl)|
Policy for handling the TLS certificate of the RADIUS server.
|eap-methods (list of peap, tls, ttls)||EAP methods to consider for authentication. Defaults to all supported methods.|
|eap-password (string)||Password to use, when the chosen EAP method requires one. No default value.|
|eap-tls-certificate (certificate)||Name or id of a certificate in the device's certificate store to use, when the chosen EAP authentication method requires one. No default value.|
|eap-username (string)||Username to use when the chosen EAP method requires one. No default value.|
|encryption (list of ccmp, ccmp-256, gcmp, gcmp-256, tkip)|
A list of ciphers to support for encrypting unicast traffic.
Defaults to ccmp.
|ft (no | yes)|
Whether to enable 802.11r fast BSS transitions. Default: no.
|ft-mobility-domain (integer 0..65535)|
The fast BSS transition mobility domain ID. Default: 44484 (0xADC4).
|ft-nas-identifier (string of 2..96 hex characters)|
Fast BSS transition PMK-R0 key holder identifier. Default: MAC address of the interface.
|ft-over-ds (no | yes)|
Whether to enable fast BSS transitions over DS (distributed system). Default: no.
|ft-r0-key-lifetime (time interval 1s..6w3d12h15m)|
Lifetime of the fast BSS transition PMK-R0 encryption key. Default: 600000s (~7 days)
|ft-reassociation-deadline (time interval 0..70s)|
Fast BSS transition reassociation deadline. Default: 20s.
|group-encryption (ccmp | ccmp-256 | gcmp | gcmp-256 | tkip)|
Cipher to use for encrypting multicast traffic.
Defaults to ccmp.
|group-key-update (time interval 30s..1h)|
Interval at which the group temporal key (key for encrypting broadcast traffic) is renewed. Defaults to 5 minutes.
|management-encryption (cmac | cmac-256 | gmac | gmac-256)|
Cipher to use for encrypting protected management frames. Defaults to cmac.
management-protection (allowed | disabled | required)
Whether to use 802.11w management frame protection. Incompatible with management frame protection in standard wireless package.
Default value depends on value of selected authentication type (WPA (1) does not support MFP, while WPA3 requires it).
Name or internal id of an interface whose MAC address and SSID to advertise as the matching AP when running in OWE transition mode.
Required for setting up open APs that offer OWE, but also work with older devices that don't support the standard. See configuration example below.
|passphrase (string of up to 63 characters)|
Passphrase to use for PSK authentication types. Defaults to an empty string - "".
WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK authentication requires a minimum of 8 chars, while WPA3-PSK does not have minimum passphrase length.
|sae-anti-clogging-threshold ('disabled' | integer)|
Due to SAE (WPA3) associations being CPU resource intensive, overwhelming an AP with bogus authentication requests makes for a feasible denial-of-service attack.
This parameter provides a way to mitigate such attacks by specifying a threshold of in-progress SAE authentications, at which the AP will start requesting that client devices include a cookie bound to their MAC address in their authentication requests. It will then only process authentication requests which contain valid cookies.
|sae-max-failure-rate ('disabled' | integer)||Rate of failed SAE (WPA3) associations per minute, at which the AP will stop processing new association requests. Defaults to disabled.|
|sae-pwe (both | hash-to-element | hunting-and-pecking)||Methods to support for deriving SAE password element. Default: both.|
|wps (disabled | push-button)|
|arp (disabled | enabled | local-proxy-arp | proxy-arp | reply-only)||Address Resolution Protocol mode:|
|arp-timeout (time interval | 'auto')||Determines how long a dynamically added ARP table entry is considered valid since the last packet was received from the respective IP address.|
Value auto equals to the value ofarp-timeout in/ip settings, which defaults to 30s.
|disable-running-check (no | yes)|
disabled (no | yes) (X)
Hardware interfaces are disabled by default. Virtual interfaces are not.
MAC address (BSSID) to use for an interface.
Hardware interfaces default to the MAC address of the associated radio interface.
Default MAC addresses for virtual interfaces are generated by
Multiple interface configurations can be run simultaneously on every wireless radio.
Only one of them determines the radio's state (whether it is enabled, what frequency it's using, etc). This 'master' interface, is bound to a radio with the corresponding radio-mac.
To create additional ('virtual') interface configurations on a radio, they need to be bound to the corresponding master interface.
No default value.
A name for the interface. Defaults to wifiN, where N is the lowest integer that has not yet been used for naming an interface.
|bound (boolean) (B)|
Always true for master interfaces (configurations linked to radio hardware).
True for a virtual interface (configurations linked to a master interface) when both the interface itself and its master interface are not disabled.
|default-name (string)||The default name for an interface.|
|inactive (boolean) (I)|
False for interfaces in AP mode when they've selected a channel for operation (i.e. configuration has been successfully applied).
False for interfaces in station mode when they've connected to an AP (i.e. configuration has been successfully applied, an with AP with matching settings has been found).
|master (boolean) (M)||True for interface configurations, which are bound to radio hardware. False for virtual interfaces.|
|radio-mac (MAC)||The MAC address of the associated radio.|
|running (boolean) (R)|
True, when an interface has established a link to another device.
If disable-running-check is set to 'yes', true whenever the interface is not disabled.
Configuration settings for wifiwave2 interfaces can be grouped in profiles according to the parameter sections listed above. These profiles - aaa, channel, configuration and security, can then be assigned to interfaces. Configuration profiles can include other profiles as well as separate parameters from other categories.
This optional flexibility is meant to allow each user to arrange their configuration in a way that makes the most sense for them, but it also means that each parameter may have different values assigned to it in different sections of the configuration.
The following priority determines, which value is used:
If you are at any point unsure of which parameter value will be used for an interface, consult the actual-configuration menu. For an example of configuration profile usage, see following example.
# Creating a security profile, which will be common for both interfaces /interface wifiwave2 security add name=common-auth authentication-types=wpa2-psk,wpa3-psk passphrase="diceware makes good passwords" wps=disable # Creating a common configuration profile and linking the security profile to it /interface wifiwave2 configuration add name=common-conf ssid=MikroTik country=Latvia security=common-auth # Creating separate channel configurations for each band /interface wifiwave2 channel add name=ch-2ghz frequency=2412,2432,2472 width=20mhz add name=ch-5ghz frequency=5180,5260,5500 width=20/40/80mhz # Assigning to each interface the common profile as well as band-specific channel profile /interface wifiwave2 set wifi1 channel=ch-2ghz configuration=common-conf disabled=no set wifi2 channel=ch-5ghz configuration=common-conf disabled=no /interface/wifiwave2/actual-configuration print 0 name="wifi1" mac-address=74:4D:28:94:22:9A arp-timeout=auto radio-mac=74:4D:28:94:22:9A configuration.ssid="MikroTik" .country=Latvia security.authentication-types=wpa2-psk,wpa3-psk .passphrase="diceware makes good passwords" .wps=disable channel.frequency=2412,2432,2472 .width=20mhz 1 name="wifi2" mac-address=74:4D:28:94:22:9B arp-timeout=auto radio-mac=74:4D:28:94:22:9B configuration.ssid="MikroTik" .country=Latvia security.authentication-types=wpa2-psk,wpa3-psk .passphrase="diceware makes good passwords" .wps=disable channel.frequency=5180,5260,5500 .width=20/40/80mhz
/interface/wifiwave2 set wifi1 disabled=no configuration.country=Latvia configuration.ssid=MikroTik security.authentication-types=wpa2-psk,wpa3-psk security.passphrase=8-63_characters
Opportunistic wireless encryption (OWE) allows creation of wireless networks that do not require the knowledge of a password to connect, but still offer the benefits of traffic encryption and management frame protection. It is an improvement on regular open access points.
However, since a network cannot be simultaneously encrypted and unencrypted, 2 separate interface configurations are required to offer connectivity to older devices that do not support OWE and offer the benefits of OWE to devices that do.
This configuration is referred to as OWE transition mode.
/interface/wifiwave2 add master-interface=wifi1 name=wifi1_owe configuration.ssid=MikroTik_OWE security.authentication-types=owe security.owe-transition-interface=wifi1 configuration.hide-ssid=yes set wifi1 configuration.country=Latvia configuration.ssid=MikroTik security.authentication-types="" security.owe-transition-interface=wifi1_owe enable wifi1,wifi1_owe
Client devices that support OWE will prefer the OWE interface. If you don't see any devices in your registration table that are associating with the regular open AP, you may want to move on from running a transition mode setup to a single OWE-encrypted interface.
Wifiwave2 interface configurations can be reset by using the 'reset' command.
/interface/wifiwave2 reset wifi1
Access list provides multiple ways of filtering and managing wireless connections.
RouterOS will check each new connection to see if its parameters match parameters specified in any access list rule.
The rules are checked in the order they appear in the list. Only management actions specified in the first matching rule are applied to each connection.
Connections, which have been accepted by an access list rule, will be periodically checked, to see if they remain within the permitted time and signal-range. If they do not, they will be terminated.
Take care when writing access list rules which reject clients. After being repeatedly rejected by an AP, a client device may start avoiding it.
|interface (interface | interface-list | 'any')||Match if connection takes place on the specified interface or interface belonging to specified list. Default: any.|
|mac-address (MAC address)||Match if the client device has the specified MAC address. No default value.|
|mac-address-mask (MAC address)|
Modifies the mac-address parameter to match if it is equal to the result of performing bit-wise AND operation on the client MAC address and the given address mask.
Default: FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF (i.e. client's MAC address must match value of mac-address exactly)
|signal-range (min..max)||Match if the strength of received signal from the client device is within the given range. Default: '-120..120'|
|ssid-regexp (regex)||Match if the given regular expression matches the SSID.|
|time (start-end,days)||Match during the specified time of day and (optionally) days of week. Default: 0s-1d|
|allow-signal-out-of-range (time period | 'always')|
The length of time which a connected peer's signal strength is allowed to be outside the range required by the signal-range parameter, before it is disconnected.
If the value is set to 'always', peer signal strength is only checked during association.
|action (accept | reject | query-radius)|
Whether to authorize a connection
|passphrase (string)||Override the default passphrase with given value. No default value.|
|radius-accounting (no | yes)||Override the default RADIUS accounting policy with given value. No default value.|
Implemented through the query-radius action, MAC address authentication is a way to implement a centralized whitelist of client MAC addresses using a RADIUS server.
When a client device tries to associate with an AP, which is configured to perform MAC address authentication, the AP will send an access-request message to a RADIUS server with the device's MAC address as the user name and an empty password. If the RADIUS server answers with access-accept to such a request, the AP proceeds with whatever regular authentication procedure (passphrase or EAP authentication) is configured for the interface.
Only accept connections to guest network from nearby devices during business hours
/interface/wifiwave2/access-list/print detail Flags: X - disabled 0 signal-range=-60..0 allow-signal-out-of-range=5m ssid-regexp="MikroTik Guest" time=7h-19h,mon,tue,wed,thu,fri action=accept 1 ssid-regexp="MikroTik Guest" action=reject
Reject connections from locally-administered ('anonymous'/'randomized') MAC addresses
/interface/wifiwave2/access-list/print detail Flags: X - disabled 0 mac-address=02:00:00:00:00:00 mac-address-mask=02:00:00:00:00:00 action=reject
Information about RF conditions on available channels can be obtained by running the frequency-scan command.
|duration (time interval)||Length of time to perform the scan for before exiting. Useful for non-interactive use. Not set by default.|
|freeze-frame-interval (time interval)||Time interval at which to update command output. Default: 1s.|
|frequency (list of frequencies/ranges)||Frequencies to perform the scan on. See channel.frequency parameter syntax above for more detail. Defaults to all supported frequencies.|
|numbers (string)||Either the name or internal id of the interface to perform the scan with. Required. Not set by default.|
|rounds (integer)||Number of times to go through list of scannable frequencies before exiting. Useful for non-interactive use. Not set by default.|
|save-file (string)||Name of file to save output to. Not set by default.|
|channel (integer)||Frequency (in MHz) of the channel scanned.|
Number of access points detected on the channel.
|load (integer)||Percentage of time the channel was busy during the scan.|
|nf (integer)||Noise floor (in dBm) of the channel.|
|max-signal (integer)||Maximum signal strength (in dBm) of APs detected in the channel.|
|min-signal (integer)||Minimum signal strength (in dBm) of APs detected in the channel.|
|primary (boolean) (P)||Channel is in use as the primary (control) channel by an AP.|
|secondary (boolean) (S)||Channel is in use as a secondary (extension) channel by an AP.|
The '/interface wifiwave2 scan' command will scan for access points and print out information about any APs it detects.
The scan command takes all the same parameters as the frequency-scan command.
|active (boolean) (A)||Signifies that beacons from the AP have been received in the last 30 seconds.|
|address (MAC)||The MAC address (BSSID) of the AP.|
|channel (string)||The control channel frequency used by the AP, its supported wireless standards and control/extension channel layout.|
Authentication methods supported by the AP.
|signal (integer)||Signal strength of the AP's beacons (in dBm).|
|ssid (string)||The extended service set identifier of the AP.|
|sta-count (integer)||The number of client devices associated with the AP. Only available if the AP includes this information in its beacons.|
An AP can be made to accept WPS authentication by a client device for 2 minutes by running the following command.
/interface/wifiwave2 wps-push-button wifi1
The wps-client command enables obtaining authentication information from a WPS-enabled AP.
|duration (time interval)||Length of time after which the command will time out if no AP is found. Unlimited by default.|
|interval (time interval)||Time interval at which to update command output. Default: 1s.|
|mac-address (MAC)||Only attempt connecting to AP with the specified MAC (BSSID). Not set by default.|
|numbers (string)||Name or internal id of the interface with which to attempt connection. Not set by default.|
|ssid (string)||Only attempt to connect to APs with the specified SSID. Not set by default.|
Information about the capabilities of each radio can be gained by running the `/interface/wifiwave2/radio print detail` command.
|2g-channels (list of integers)||Frequencies supported in the 2.4GHz band.|
|5g-channels (list of integers)||Frequencies supported in the 5GHz band.|
|bands (list of strings)||Supported frequency bands, wireless standards and channel widths.|
|ciphers (list of strings)||Supported encryption ciphers.|
|countries (list of strings)||Regulatory domains supported by the interface.|
|min-antenna-gain (integer)||Minimum antenna gain permitted for the interface.|
A unique identifier.
|radio-mac (MAC)||MAC address of the radio interface. Can be used to match radios to interface configurations.|
|rx-chains (list of integers)||IDs for radio chains available for receiving radio signals.|
|tx-chains (list of integers)||IDs for radio chains available for transmitting radio signals.|
The registration table contains read-only information about associated wireless devices.
|authorized (boolean) (A)||True when the peer has successfully authenticated.|
|bytes (list of integers)||Number of bytes in packets transmitted to a peer and received from it.|
|interface (string)||Name of the interface, which was used to associate with the peer.|
|mac-address (MAC)||The MAC address of the peer.|
|packets (list of integers)||Number of packets transmitted to a peer and received from it.|
|rx-rate (string)||Bitrate of received transmissions from peer.|
Strength of signal received from the peer (in dBm).
|tx-rate (string)||Bitrate used for transmitting to the peer.|
|uptime (time interval)||Time since association.|
Wireless peers can be manually de-authenticated (forcing re-association) by removing them from the registration table.
/interface/wifiwave2/registration-table remove [find where mac-address=02:01:02:03:04:05]
Information about your regulatory domain, such as allowed frequencies, transmit power and DFS requirements can be found in the info menu.
/interface/wifiwave2/info country-info Latvia
The wifiwave2 package can be installed on some products, which ship with the bundled 'wireless' package, replacing it.
Installing the wifiwave2 package disables other means of configuring wireless interfaces. Before installation, make sure to back up any wireless and CAPsMAN configuration you may want to retain.
Due to storage, RAM and architecture requirements, only the following products can replace their bundled wireless software package with wifiwave2:
* The 2.4GHz wireless interface on the RB4011iGS+5HacQ2HnD is not compatible with the wifiwave2 package. It will not be usable with the package installed.
The following notable features of the bundled wireless package do not yet have equivalents in the wifiwave2 package