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Introduction


Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a set of protocols defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to secure packet exchange over unprotected IP/IPv6 networks such as the Internet.


IPsec protocol suite can be divided into the following groups:

  • Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocols. Dynamically generates and distributes cryptographic keys for AH and ESP.
  • Authentication Header (AH) RFC 4302
  • Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) RFC 4303

Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE)

The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is a protocol that provides authenticated keying material for the Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) framework. There are other key exchange schemes that work with ISAKMP, but IKE is the most widely used one. Together they provide means for authentication of hosts and automatic management of security associations (SA).

Most of the time IKE daemon is doing nothing. There are two possible situations when it is activated:

There is some traffic caught by a policy rule which needs to become encrypted or authenticated, but the policy doesn't have any SAs. The policy notifies the IKE daemon about that, and the IKE daemon initiates a connection to a remote host. IKE daemon responds to remote connection. In both cases, peers establish a connection and execute 2 phases:

  • Phase 1 - The peers agree upon algorithms they will use in the following IKE messages and authenticate. The keying material used to derive keys for all SAs and to protect following ISAKMP exchanges between hosts is generated also. This phase should match the following settings:
    • authentication method
    • DH group
    • encryption algorithm
    • exchange mode
    • hash algorithm
    • NAT-T
    • DPD and lifetime (optional)
  • Phase 2 - The peers establish one or more SAs that will be used by IPsec to encrypt data. All SAs established by the IKE daemon will have lifetime values (either limiting time, after which SA will become invalid, or amount of data that can be encrypted by this SA, or both). This phase should match the following settings:
    • IPsec protocol
    • mode (tunnel or transport)
    • authentication method
    • PFS (DH) group
    • lifetime

There are two lifetime values - soft and hard. When SA reaches its soft lifetime threshold, the IKE daemon receives a notice and starts another phase 2 exchange to replace this SA with a fresh one. If SA reaches a hard lifetime, it is discarded.

Phase 1 is not re-keyed if DPD is disabled when the lifetime expires, only phase 2 is re-keyed. To force phase 1 re-key, enable DPD.

PSK authentication was known to be vulnerable against Offline attacks in "aggressive" mode, however recent discoveries indicate that offline attack is possible also in case of "main" and "ike2" exchange modes. A general recommendation is to avoid using the PSK authentication method.

IKE can optionally provide a Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS), which is a property of key exchanges, that, in turn, means for IKE that compromising the long term phase 1 key will not allow to easily gain access to all IPsec data that is protected by SAs established through this phase 1. It means an additional keying material is generated for each phase 2.

The generation of keying material is computationally very expensive. Exempli Gratia, the use of the modp8192 group can take several seconds even on a very fast computer. It usually takes place once per phase 1 exchange, which happens only once between any host pair and then is kept for a long time. PFS adds this expensive operation also to each phase 2 exchange.

Diffie-Hellman Groups

Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol allows two parties without any initial shared secret to create one securely. The following Modular Exponential (MODP) and Elliptic Curve (EC2N) Diffie-Hellman (also known as "Oakley") Groups are supported:

Diffie-Hellman GroupNameReference
Group 1768 bits MODP groupRFC 2409
Group 21024 bits MODP groupRFC 2409
Group 3EC2N group on GP(2^155)RFC 2409
Group 4EC2N group on GP(2^185)RFC 2409
Group 51536 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 142048 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 153072 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 164096 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 176144 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 188192 bits MODP groupRFC 3526
Group 19256 bits random ECP groupRFC 5903
Group 20384 bits random ECP groupRFC 5903
Group 21521 bits random ECP groupRFC 5903

More on standards can be found here.

IKE Traffic

To avoid problems with IKE packets hit some SPD rule and require to encrypt it with not yet established SA (that this packet perhaps is trying to establish), locally originated packets with UDP source port 500 are not processed with SPD. The same way packets with UDP destination port 500 that are to be delivered locally are not processed in incoming policy checks.

Setup Procedure

To get IPsec to work with automatic keying using IKE-ISAKMP you will have to configure policy, peer, and proposal (optional) entries.

IPsec is very sensitive to time changes. If both ends of the IPsec tunnel are not synchronizing time equally(for example, different NTP servers not updating time with the same timestamp), tunnels will break and will have to be established again.

EAP Authentication methods

Outer AuthInner Auth
EAP-GTC
EAP-MD5
EAP-MSCHAPv2
EAP-PEAPv0

EAP-MSCHAPv2
EAP-GPSK
EAP-GTC
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS

EAP-SIM
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS

PAP
CHAP
MS-CHAP
MS-CHAPv2
EAP-MSCHAPv2
EAP-GTC
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS

EAP-TLS on Windows is called "Smart Card or other certificates".

Authentication Header (AH)

AH is a protocol that provides authentication of either all or part of the contents of a datagram through the addition of a header that is calculated based on the values in the datagram. What parts of the datagram are used for the calculation, and the placement of the header depends on whether tunnel or transport mode is used.

The presence of the AH header allows to verify the integrity of the message but doesn't encrypt it. Thus, AH provides authentication but not privacy. Another protocol (ESP) is considered superior, it provides data privacy and also its own authentication method.

RouterOS supports the following authentication algorithms for AH:

  • SHA2 (256, 512)
  • SHA1
  • MD5

Transport mode

In transport mode, the AH header is inserted after the IP header. IP data and header is used to calculate authentication value. IP fields that might change during transit, like TTL and hop count, are set to zero values before authentication.

Tunnel mode

In tunnel mode, the original IP packet is encapsulated within a new IP packet. All of the original IP packets are authenticated.

Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)


Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) uses shared key encryption to provide data privacy. ESP also supports its own authentication scheme like that used in AH.

ESP packages its fields in a very different way than AH. Instead of having just a header, it divides its fields into three components:

  • ESP Header - Comes before the encrypted data and its placement depends on whether ESP is used in transport mode or tunnel mode.
  • ESP Trailer - This section is placed after the encrypted data. It contains padding that is used to align the encrypted data.
  • ESP Authentication Data - This field contains an Integrity Check Value (ICV), computed in a manner similar to how the AH protocol works, for when ESP's optional authentication feature is used.

Transport mode

In transport mode, the ESP header is inserted after the original IP header. ESP trailer and authentication value are added to the end of the packet. In this mode only the IP payload is encrypted and authenticated, the IP header is not secured.


Tunnel mode

In tunnel mode, an original IP packet is encapsulated within a new IP packet thus securing IP payload and IP header.

Encryption algorithms

RouterOS ESP supports various encryption and authentication algorithms.

Authentication:

  • MD5
  • SHA1
  • SHA2 (256-bit, 512-bit)

Encryption:

  • AES - 128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit key AES-CBC, AES-CTR, and AES-GCM algorithms;
  • Blowfish - added since v4.5
  • Twofish - added since v4.5
  • Camellia - 128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit key Camellia encryption algorithm added since v4.5
  • DES - 56-bit DES-CBC encryption algorithm;
  • 3DES - 168-bit DES encryption algorithm;

Hardware acceleration

Hardware acceleration allows doing a faster encryption process by using a built-in encryption engine inside the CPU.

RouterBoardDES and 3DESAES-CBCAES-CTRAES-GCM
MD5SHA1SHA256SHA512MD5SHA1SHA256SHA512MD5SHA1SHA256SHA512MD5SHA1SHA256SHA512
RBcAPGi-5acD2nD (cAP ac)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBD23UGS-5HPacD2HnD-NM (NetMetal ac²)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBD25G-5HPacQD2HPnD (Audience)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBD25GR-5HPacQD2HPnD&R11e-LTE6 (Audience LTE6 kit)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBD52G-5HacD2HnD (hAP ac2)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBDiscG-5acD (DISC Lite5 ac)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBLDFG-5acD (LDF 5 ac)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBLHGG-5acD (LHG 5 ac)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBLHGG-5HPacD2HPnD-XL (LHG XL 52 ac)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBLHGG-5acD-XL (LHG XL 5 ac)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBLHGG-60ad (Wireless Wire Dish)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBLtAP-2HnD (LtAP)yes****yes****yes****noyesyesyesnonononononononono
RBLtAP-2HnD&R11e-LTE (LtAP LTE kit)yes****yes****yes****noyesyesyesnonononononononono
RBLtAP-2HnD&R11e-4G (LtAP 4G kit)yes****yes****yes****noyesyesyesnonononononononono
RBLtAP-2HnD&R11e-LTE6 (LtAP LTE6 kit)yes****yes****yes****noyesyesyesnonononononononono
RBM11Gyes****yes****yes****noyesyesyesnonononononononono
RBM33Gyes****yes****yes****noyesyesyesnonononononononono
RBSXTsqG-5acD (SXTsq 5 ac)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBwAPG-60ad (wAP 60G)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBwAPG-60ad-A (wAP 60G AP)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBwAPGR-5HacD2HnD (wAP R ac)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBwAPGR-5HacD2HnD&R11e-LTE (wAP ac LTE kit)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBwAPGR-5HacD2HnD&R11e-4G (wAP ac 4G kit)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RBwAPGR-5HacD2HnD&R11e-LTE6 (wAP ac LTE6 kit)noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RB450Gx4noyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RB750Gr3 (hEX)yes****yes****yes****noyesyesyesnonononononononono
RB760iGS (hEX S)yes****yes****yes****noyesyesyesnonononononononono
RB850Gx2nonononoyes**yes**yes**yes**nononononononono
RB1100AHx2yesyesyesnoyesyesyesyesnononononononono
RB1100AHx4 and RB1100AHx4 Dude Editionyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
RB1200nonononoyes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***nononono
RB3011UiAS-RMnoyesyesnonoyes*yes*nonoyes*yes*nonononono
RB4011iGS+RM and RB4011iGS+5HacQ2HnD-INyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyesyes
Cloud Core Router seriesyesyesyesnoyesyesyesnoyesyesyesnonononono
x86 (AES-NI)nonononoyes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***yes***

* supported only 128 bit and 256 bit key sizes

** only manufactured since 2016, serial numbers that begin with number 5 and 7

*** AES-CBC and AES-CTR only encryption is accelerated, hashing done in software

**** DES is not supported, only 3DES and AES-CBC

IPsec throughput results of various encryption and hash algorithm combinations are published on the MikroTik products page.

Policies

The policy table is used to determine whether security settings should be applied to a packet.

Properties

PropertyDescription
action (discard | encrypt | none; Default: encrypt)Specifies what to do with the packet matched by the policy.
  • none - pass the packet unchanged.
  • discard - drop the packet.
  • encrypt - apply transformations specified in this policy and it's SA.
comment (string; Default: )Short description of the policy.
disabled (yes | no; Default: no)Whether a policy is used to match packets.
dst-address (IP/IPv6 prefix; Default: 0.0.0.0/32)Destination address to be matched in packets. Applicable when tunnel mode (tunnel=yes) or template (template=yes) is used.
dst-port (integer:0..65535 | any; Default: any)Destination port to be matched in packets. If set to any all ports will be matched.
group (string; Default: default)Name of the policy group to which this template is assigned.
ipsec-protocols (ah | esp; Default: esp)Specifies what combination of Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload protocols you want to apply to matched traffic.
level (require | unique | use; Default: require)Specifies what to do if some of the SAs for this policy cannot be found:
  • use - skip this transform, do not drop the packet, and do not acquire SA from IKE daemon;
  • require - drop the packet and acquire SA;
  • unique - drop the packet and acquire a unique SA that is only used with this particular policy. It is used in setups where multiple clients can sit behind one public IP address (clients behind NAT).
peer (string; Default: )Name of the peer on which the policy applies.
proposal (string; Default: default)Name of the proposal template that will be sent by IKE daemon to establish SAs for this policy.
protocol (all | egp | ggp| icmp | igmp | ...; Default: all)IP packet protocol to match.
src-address (ip/ipv6 prefix; Default: 0.0.0.0/32)Source address to be matched in packets. Applicable when tunnel mode (tunnel=yes) or template (template=yes) is used.
src-port (any | integer:0..65535; Default: any)Source port to be matched in packets. If set to any all ports will be matched.
template (yes | no; Default: no)Creates a template and assigns it to a specified policy group.

Following parameters are used by template:

  • group - name of the policy group to which this template is assigned;
  • src-address, dst-address - Requested subnet must match in both directions(for example 0.0.0.0/0 to allow all);
  • protocol - protocol to match, if set to all, then any protocol is accepted;
  • proposal - SA parameters used for this template;
  • level - useful when unique is required in setups with multiple clients behind NAT.
tunnel (yes | no; Default: no)Specifies whether to use tunnel mode.

Read-only properties

PropertyDescription
active (yes | no)Whether this policy is currently in use.
default (yes | no)Whether this is a default system entry.
dynamic (yes | no)Whether this is a dynamically added or generated entry.
invalid (yes | no)Whether this policy is invalid - the possible cause is a duplicate policy with the same src-address and dst-address.
ph2-count (integer)A number of active phase 2 sessions associated with the policy.
ph2-state (expired | no-phase2 | established)Indication of the progress of key establishing.
sa-dst-address (ip/ipv6 address; Default: ::)SA destination IP/IPv6 address (remote peer).
sa-src-address (ip/ipv6 address; Default: ::)SA source IP/IPv6 address (local peer).

Policy order is important starting from v6.40. Now it works similarly to firewall filters where policies are executed from top to bottom (priority parameter is removed).

All packets are IPIP encapsulated in tunnel mode, and their new IP header's src-address and dst-address are set to sa-src-address and sa-dst-address values of this policy. If you do not use tunnel mode (id est you use transport mode), then only packets whose source and destination addresses are the same as sa-src-address and sa-dst-address can be processed by this policy. Transport mode can only work with packets that originate at and are destined for IPsec peers (hosts that established security associations). To encrypt traffic between networks (or a network and a host) you have to use tunnel mode.

Statistics

This menu shows various IPsec statistics and errors.

Read-only properties

PropertyDescription
in-errors (integer)All inbound errors that are not matched by other counters.
in-buffer-errors (integer)No free buffer.
in-header-errors (integer)Header error.
in-no-states (integer)No state is found i.e. either inbound SPI, address, or IPsec protocol at SA is wrong.
in-state-protocol-errors (integer)Transformation protocol specific error, for example, SA key is wrong or hardware accelerator is unable to handle the number of packets.
in-state-mode-errors (integer)Transformation mode-specific error.
in-state-sequence-errors (integer)A sequence number is out of a window.
in-state-expired (integer)The state is expired.
in-state-mismatches (integer)The state has a mismatched options, for example, the UDP encapsulation type is mismatched.
in-state-invalid (integer)The state is invalid.
in-template-mismatches (integer)No matching template for states, e.g. inbound SAs are correct but the SP rule is wrong. A possible cause is a mismatched sa-source or sa-destination address.
in-no-policies (integer)No policy is found for states, e.g. inbound SAs are correct but no SP is found.
in-policy-blocked (integer)Policy discards.
in-policy-errors (integer)Policy errors.
out-errors (integer)All outbound errors that are not matched by other counters.
out-bundle-errors (integer)Bundle generation error.
out-bundle-check-errors (integer)Bundle check error.
out-no-states (integer)No state is found.
out-state-protocol-errors (integer)Transformation protocol specific error.
out-state-mode-errors (integer)Transformation mode-specific error.
out-state-sequence-errors (integer)Sequence errors, for example, sequence number overflow.
out-state-expired (integer)The state is expired.
out-policy-blocked (integer)Policy discards.
out-policy-dead (integer)The policy is dead.
out-policy-errors (integer)Policy error.

Proposals

Proposal information that will be sent by IKE daemons to establish SAs for certain policies.


Properties

PropertyDescription
auth-algorithms (md5|null|sha1|sha256|sha512; Default: sha1)Allowed algorithms for authorization. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is stronger but slower. MD5 uses a 128-bit key, sha1-160bit key.
comment (string; Default: )
disabled (yes | no; Default: no)Whether an item is disabled.
enc-algorithms (null|des|3des|aes-128-cbc|aes-128-cbc|aes-128gcm|aes-192-cbc|aes-192-ctr|aes-192-gcm|aes-256-cbc|aes-256-ctr|aes-256-gcm|blowfish|camellia-128|camellia-192|camellia-256|twofish; Default: aes-256-cbc,aes-192-cbc,aes-128-cbc)Allowed algorithms and key lengths to use for SAs.
lifetime (time; Default: 30m)How long to use SA before throwing it out.
name (string; Default: )
pfs-group (ec2n155 | ec2n185 | ecp256 | ecp384 | ecp521 | modp768 | modp1024 | modp1536 | modp2048 | modp3072 | modp4096 | modp6144 | modp8192 | none; Default: modp1024)The diffie-Helman group used for Perfect Forward Secrecy.


Read-only properties

PropertyDescription
default (yes | no)Whether this is a default system entry.

Groups

In this menu, it is possible to create additional policy groups used by policy templates.


Properties

PropertyDescription
name (string; Default: )
comment (string; Default: )

Peers

Peer configuration settings are used to establish connections between IKE daemons. This connection then will be used to negotiate keys and algorithms for SAs. Exchange mode is the only unique identifier between the peers, meaning that there can be multiple peer configurations with the same remote-address as long as a different exchange-mode is used.

Properties

PropertyDescription
address (IP/IPv6 Prefix; Default: 0.0.0.0/0)If the remote peer's address matches this prefix, then the peer configuration is used in authentication and establishment of Phase 1. If several peer's addresses match several configuration entries, the most specific one (i.e. the one with the largest netmask) will be used.
comment (string; Default: )Short description of the peer.
disabled (yes | no; Default: no)Whether peer is used to matching remote peer's prefix.
exchange-mode (aggressive | base | main | ike2; Default: main)Different ISAKMP phase 1 exchange modes according to RFC 2408. the main mode relaxes rfc2409 section 5.4, to allow pre-shared-key authentication in the main mode. ike2 mode enables Ikev2 RFC 7296. Parameters that are ignored by IKEv2 proposal-check, compatibility-options, lifebytes, dpd-maximum-failures, nat-traversal.
local-address (IP/IPv6 Address; Default: )Routers local address on which Phase 1 should be bounded to.
name (string; Default: )
passive (yes | no; Default: no)When a passive mode is enabled will wait for a remote peer to initiate an IKE connection. The enabled passive mode also indicates that the peer is xauth responder, and disabled passive mode - xauth initiator. When a passive mode is a disabled peer will try to establish not only phase1 but also phase2 automatically, if policies are configured or created during the phase1.
port (integer:0..65535; Default: 500)Communication port used (when a router is an initiator) to connect to remote peer in cases if remote peer uses the non-default port.
profile (string; Default: default)Name of the profile template that will be used during IKE negotiation.
send-initial-contact (yes | no; Default: yes)Specifies whether to send "initial contact" IKE packet or wait for remote side, this packet should trigger the removal of old peer SAs for current source address. Usually, in road warrior setups clients are initiators and this parameter should be set to no. Initial contact is not sent if modecfg or xauth is enabled for ikev1.

Read-only properties

PropertyDescription
dynamic (yes | no)Whether this is a dynamically added entry by a different service (e.g L2TP).
responder (yes | no)Whether this peer will act as a responder only (listen to incoming requests) and not initiate a connection.

Identities

Identities are configuration parameters that are specific to the remote peer. The main purpose of identity is to handle authentication and verify the peer's integrity.

Properties

PropertyDescription
auth-method (digital-signature | eap | eap-radius | pre-shared-key | pre-shared-key-xauth | rsa-key | rsa-signature-hybrid; Default: pre-shared-key)Authentication method:
  • digital-signature - authenticate using a pair of RSA certificates;
  • eap - IKEv2 EAP authentication for initiator (peer with a netmask of /32). Must be used together with eap-methods;
  • eap-radius - IKEv2 EAP RADIUS passthrough authentication for the responder (RFC 3579). A server certificate in this case is required. If a server certificate is not specified then only clients supporting EAP-only (RFC 5998) will be able to connect. Note that the EAP method should be compatible with EAP-only;
  • pre-shared-key - authenticate by a password (pre-shared secret) string shared between the peers (not recommended since an offline attack on the pre-shared key is possible);
  • rsa-key - authenticate using an RSA key imported in keys menu. Only supported in IKEv1;
  • pre-shared-key-xauth - authenticate by a password (pre-shared secret) string shared between the peers + XAuth username and password. Only supported in IKEv1;
  • rsa-signature-hybrid - responder certificate authentication with initiator XAuth. Only supported in IKEv1.
certificate (string; Default: )Name of a certificate listed in System/Certificates (signing packets; the certificate must have the private key). Applicable if digital signature authentication method (auth-method=digital-signature) or EAP (auth-method=eap) is used.
comment (string; Default: )Short description of the identity.
disabled (yes | no; Default: no)Whether identity is used to match remote peers.
eap-methods (eap-mschapv2 | eap-peap | eap-tls | eap-ttls; Default: eap-tls)All EAP methods requires whole certificate chain including intermediate and root CA certificates to be present in System/Certificates menu. Also, the username and password (if required by the authentication server) must be specified. Multiple EAP methods may be specified and will be used in a specified order. Currently supported EAP methods:
  • eap-mschapv2;
  • eap-peap - also known as PEAPv0/EAP-MSCHAPv2;
  • eap-tls - requires additional client certificate specified under certificate parameter;
  • eap-ttls.
generate-policy (no | port-override | port-strict; Default: no)Allow this peer to establish SA for non-existing policies. Such policies are created dynamically for the lifetime of SA. Automatic policies allows, for example, to create IPsec secured L2TP tunnels, or any other setup where remote peer's IP address is not known at the configuration time.
  • no - do not generate policies;
  • port-override - generate policies and force policy to use any port (old behavior);
  • port-strict - use ports from peer's proposal, which should match peer's policy.
key (string; Default: )Name of the private key from keys menu. Applicable if RSA key authentication method (auth-method=rsa-key) is used.
match-by (remote-id | certificate; Default: remote-id)Defines the logic used for peer's identity validation.
  • remote-id - will verify the peer's ID according to remote-id setting.
  • certificate will verify the peer's certificate with what is specified under remote-certificate setting.
mode-config (none | *request-only | string; Default: none)Name of the configuration parameters from mode-config menu. When parameter is set mode-config is enabled.
my-id (auto | address | fqdn | user-fqdn | key-id; Default: auto)On initiator, this controls what ID_i is sent to the responder. On responder, this controls what ID_r is sent to the initiator. In IKEv2, responder also expects this ID in received ID_r from initiator.
  • auto - tries to use correct ID automatically: IP for pre-shared key, SAN (DN if not present) for certificate based connections;
  • address - IP address is used as ID;
  • fqdn - fully qualified domain name;
  • key-id - use the specified key ID for the identity;
  • user fqdn - specifies a fully-qualified username string, for example, "user@domain.com".
notrack-chain (string; Default: )Adds IP/Firewall/Raw rules matching IPsec policy to a specified chain. Use together with generate-policy.
password (string; Default: )XAuth or EAP password. Applicable if pre-shared key with XAuth authentication method (auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth) or EAP (auth-method=eap) is used.
peer (string; Default: )Name of the peer on which the identity applies.
policy-template-group (none | string; Default: default)If generate-policy is enabled, traffic selectors are checked against templates from the same group. If none of the templates match, Phase 2 SA will not be established.
remote-certificate (string; Default: )Name of a certificate (listed in System/Certificates) for authenticating the remote side (validating packets; no private key required). If a remote-certificate is not specified then the received certificate from a remote peer is used and checked against CA in the certificate menu. Proper CA must be imported in a certificate store. If remote-certificate and match-by=certificate is specified, only the specific client certificate will be matched. Applicable if digital signature authentication method (auth-method=digital-signature) is used.
remote-id (auto | fqdn | user-fqdn | key-id | ignore; Default: auto)This parameter controls what ID value to expect from the remote peer. Note that all types except for ignoring will verify remote peer's ID with a received certificate. In case when the peer sends the certificate name as its ID, it is checked against the certificate, else the ID is checked against Subject Alt. Name.
  • auto - accept all ID's;
  • fqdn - fully qualified domain name. Only supported in IKEv2;
  • user fqdn - a fully-qualified username string, for example, "user@domain.com". Only supported in IKEv2;
  • key-id - specific key ID for the identity. Only supported in IKEv2;
  • ignore - do not verify received ID with certificate (dangerous).
remote-key (string; Default: )Name of the public key from keys menu. Applicable if RSA key authentication method (auth-method=rsa-key) is used.
secret (string; Default: )Secret string. If it starts with '0x', it is parsed as a hexadecimal value. Applicable if pre-shared key authentication method (auth-method=pre-shared-key and auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth) is used.
username (string; Default: )XAuth or EAP username. Applicable if pre-shared key with XAuth authentication method (auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth) or EAP (auth-method=eap) is used.


Read only properties

PropertyDescription
dynamic (yes | no)Whether this is a dynamically added entry by a different service (e.g L2TP).

Profiles

Profiles define a set of parameters that will be used for IKE negotiation during Phase 1. These parameters may be common with other peer configurations.

Properties

PropertyDescription
dh-group (modp768 | modp1024 | ec2n155 | ec2n185 | modp1536 | modp2048 | modp3072 | modp4096 | modp6144 | modp8192 | ecp256 | ecp384 | ecp521; Default: modp1024,modp2048) Diffie-Hellman group (cipher strength)
dpd-interval (time | disable-dpd; Default: 2m)Dead peer detection interval. If set to disable-dpd, dead peer detection will not be used.
dpd-maximum-failures (integer: 1..100; Default: 5)Maximum count of failures until peer is considered to be dead. Applicable if DPD is enabled.
enc-algorithm (3des | aes-128 | aes-192 | aes-256 | blowfish | camellia-128 | camellia-192 | camellia-256 | des; Default: aes-128)List of encryption algorithms that will be used by the peer.
hash-algorithm (md5 | sha1 | sha256 | sha512; Default: sha1)Hashing algorithm. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is stronger, but slower. MD5 uses 128-bit key, sha1-160bit key.
lifebytes (Integer: 0..4294967295; Default: 0)Phase 1 lifebytes is used only as administrative value which is added to proposal. Used in cases if remote peer requires specific lifebytes value to establish phase 1.
lifetime (time; Default: 1d)Phase 1 lifetime: specifies how long the SA will be valid.
name (string; Default: )
nat-traversal (yes | no; Default: yes)Use Linux NAT-T mechanism to solve IPsec incompatibility with NAT routers between IPsec peers. This can only be used with ESP protocol (AH is not supported by design, as it signs the complete packet, including the IP header, which is changed by NAT, rendering AH signature invalid). The method encapsulates IPsec ESP traffic into UDP streams in order to overcome some minor issues that made ESP incompatible with NAT.
proposal-check (claim | exact | obey | strict; Default: obey)Phase 2 lifetime check logic:
  • claim - take shortest of proposed and configured lifetimes and notify initiator about it
  • exact - require lifetimes to be the same
  • obey - accept whatever is sent by an initiator
  • strict - if the proposed lifetime is longer than the default then reject the proposal otherwise accept a proposed lifetime

Active Peers

This menu provides various statistics about remote peers that currently have established phase 1 connection.


Read only properties

PropertyDescription
dynamic-address (ip/ipv6 address)Dynamically assigned an IP address by mode config
last-seen (time)Duration since the last message received by this peer.
local-address (ip/ipv6 address)Local address on the router used by this peer.
natt-peer (yes | no)Whether NAT-T is used for this peer.
ph2-total (integer)The total amount of active IPsec security associations.
remote-address (ip/ipv6 address)The remote peer's ip/ipv6 address.
responder (yes | no)Whether the connection is initiated by a remote peer.
rx-bytes (integer)The total amount of bytes received from this peer.
rx-packets (integer)The total amount of packets received from this peer.
side (initiator | responder)Shows which side initiated the Phase1 negotiation.
state (string)State of phase 1 negotiation with the peer. For example, when phase1 and phase 2 are negotiated it will show state "established".
tx-bytes (integer)The total amount of bytes transmitted to this peer.
tx-packets (integer)The total amount of packets transmitted to this peer.
uptime (time)How long peers are in an established state.


Commands

PropertyDescription
kill-connections ()Manually disconnects all remote peers.

Mode configs

ISAKMP and IKEv2 configuration attributes are configured in this menu.


Properties

PropertyDescription
address-pool (none | string; Default: )Name of the address pool from which the responder will try to assign address if mode-config is enabled.
address-prefix-length (integer [1..32]; Default: )Prefix length (netmask) of the assigned address from the pool.
comment (string; Default: )
name (string; Default: )
responder (yes | no; Default: no)Specifies whether the configuration will work as an initiator (client) or responder (server). The initiator will request for mode-config parameters from the responder.
split-include (list of IP prefix; Default: )List of subnets in CIDR format, which to tunnel. Subnets will be sent to the peer using the CISCO UNITY extension, a remote peer will create specific dynamic policies.
src-address-list (address list; Default: )Specifying an address list will generate dynamic source NAT rules. This parameter is only available with responder=no. A roadWarrior client with NAT
static-dns (list of IP; Default: )Manually specified DNS server's IP address to be sent to the client.
system-dns (yes | no; Default: )When this option is enabled DNS addresses will be taken from /ip dns.


Read-only properties

PropertyDescription
default (yes | no)Whether this is a default system entry.

Not all IKE implementations support multiple split networks provided by the split-include option.

If RouterOS client is initiator, it will always send CISCO UNITY extension, and RouterOS supports only split-include from this extension.

It is not possible to use system-dns and static-dns at the same time.

Installed SAs

This menu provides information about installed security associations including the keys.


Read-only properties

PropertyDescription
AH (yes | no)Whether AH protocol is used by this SA.
ESP (yes | no)Whether ESP protocol is used by this SA.
add-lifetime (time/time)Added lifetime for the SA in format soft/hard:
  • soft - time period after which IKE will try to establish new SA;
  • hard - time period after which SA is deleted.
addtime (time)Date and time when this SA was added.
auth-algorithm (md5 | null | sha1 | ...)Currently used authentication algorithm.
auth-key (string)Used authentication key.
current-bytes (64-bit integer)A number of bytes seen by this SA.
dst-address (IP)The destination address of this SA.
enc-algorithm (des | 3des | aes-cbc | ...)Currently used encryption algorithm.
enc-key (string)Used encryption key.
enc-key-size (number)Used encryption key length.
expires-in (yes | no)Time left until rekeying.
hw-aead (yes | no)Whether this SA is hardware accelerated.
replay (integer)Size of replay window in bytes.
spi (string)Security Parameter Index identification tag
src-address (IP)The source address of this SA.
state (string)Shows the current state of the SA ("mature", "dying" etc)


Commands

PropertyDescription
flush ()Manually removes all installed security associations.

Keys

This menu lists all imported public and private keys, that can be used for peer authentication. Menu has several commands to work with keys.


Properties

PropertyDescription
name (string; Default: )


Read-only properties

PropertyDescription
key-size (1024 | 2048 | 4096)Size of this key.
private-key (yes | no)Whether this is a private key.
rsa (yes | no)Whether this is an RSA key.


Commands

PropertyDescription
export-pub-key (file-name; key)Export public key to file from one of existing private keys.
generate-key (key-size; name)Generate a private key. Takes two parameters, name of the newly generated key and key size 1024,2048 and 4096.
import (file-name; name)Import key from file.

Settings


PropertyDescription
accounting (yes | no; Default: )Whether to send RADIUS accounting requests to a RADIUS server. Applicable if EAP Radius (auth-method=eap-radius) or pre-shared key with XAuth authentication method (auth-method=pre-shared-key-xauth) is used.
interim-update (time; Default: )The interval between each consecutive RADIUS accounting Interim update. Accounting must be enabled.
xauth-use-radius (yes | no; Default: )Whether to use Radius client for XAuth users or not.

Application Guides

RoadWarrior client with NAT

Consider setup as illustrated below. RouterOS acts as a RoadWarrior client connected to Office allowing access to its internal resources.

A tunnel is established, a local mode-config IP address is received and a set of dynamic policies are generated.

[admin@mikrotik] > ip ipsec policy print 
Flags: T - template, X - disabled, D - dynamic, I - invalid, A - active, * - default 
0 T * group=default src-address=::/0 dst-address=::/0 protocol=all proposal=default template=yes 

1 DA src-address=192.168.77.254/32 src-port=any dst-address=10.5.8.0/24 dst-port=any protocol=all 
action=encrypt level=unique ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=yes sa-src-address=10.155.107.8 
sa-dst-address=10.155.107.9 proposal=default ph2-count=1 

2 DA src-address=192.168.77.254/32 src-port=any dst-address=192.168.55.0/24 dst-port=any protocol=all 
action=encrypt level=unique ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=yes sa-src-address=10.155.107.8 
sa-dst-address=10.155.107.9 proposal=default ph2-count=1 

Currently, only packets with a source address of 192.168.77.254/32 will match the IPsec policies. For a local network to be able to reach remote subnets, it is necessary to change the source address of local hosts to the dynamically assigned mode config IP address. It is possible to generate source NAT rules dynamically. This can be done by creating a new address list that contains all local networks that the NAT rule should be applied. In our case, it is 192.168.88.0/24.

/ip firewall address-list add address=192.168.88.0/24 list=local-RW

By specifying the address list under the mode-config initiator configuration, a set of source NAT rules will be dynamically generated.

/ip ipsec mode-config set [ find name="request-only" ] src-address-list=local-RW

When the IPsec tunnel is established, we can see the dynamically created source NAT rules for each network. Now every host in 192.168.88.0/24 is able to access Office's internal resources.

[admin@mikrotik] > ip firewall nat print 
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 
0 D ;;; ipsec mode-config
chain=srcnat action=src-nat to-addresses=192.168.77.254 dst-address=192.168.55.0/24 src-address-list=local-RW

1 D ;;; ipsec mode-config
chain=srcnat action=src-nat to-addresses=192.168.77.254 dst-address=10.5.8.0/24 src-address-list=local-RW

Allow only IPsec encapsulated traffic

There are some scenarios where for security reasons you would like to drop access from/to specific networks if incoming/outgoing packets are not encrypted. For example, if we have L2TP/IPsec setup we would want to drop nonencrypted L2TP connection attempts.

There are several ways how to achieve this:

  • Using IPsec policy matcher in firewall;
  • Using generic IPsec policy with action set to drop and lower priority (can be used in Road Warrior setups where dynamic policies are generated);
  • By setting DSCP or priority in mangle and matching the same values in firewall after decapsulation.

IPsec policy matcher

Let's set up an IPsec policy matcher to accept all packets that matched any of the IPsec policies and drop the rest:

add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN ipsec-policy=in,ipsec
add action=drop chain=input comment="drop all" in-interface=WAN log=yes

IPsec policy matcher takes two parameters direction, policy. We used incoming direction and IPsec policy. IPsec policy option allows us to inspect packets after decapsulation, so for example, if we want to allow only GRE encapsulated packet from a specific source address and drop the rest we could set up the following rules:

add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN ipsec-policy=in,ipsec protocol=gre src=address=192.168.33.1
add action=drop chain=input comment="drop all" in-interface=WAN log=yes

For L2TP rule set would be:

add chain=input comment="ipsec policy matcher" in-interface=WAN ipsec-policy=in,ipsec protocol=udp dst-port=1701
add action=drop chain=input protocol=udp dst-port=1701 comment="drop l2tp" in-interface=WAN log=yes

Using generic IPsec policy

The trick of this method is to add a default policy with an action drop. Let's assume we are running an L2TP/IPsec server on a public 1.1.1.1 address and we want to drop all nonencrypted L2TP:

/ip ipsec policy
add src-address=1.1.1.1 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 sa-src-address=1.1.1.1 protocol=udp src-port=1701 tunnel=yes action=discard

Now router will drop any L2TP unencrypted incoming traffic, but after a successful L2TP/IPsec connection dynamic policy is created with higher priority than it is on default static rule, and packets matching that dynamic rule can be forwarded.

Policy order is important! For this to work, make sure the static drop policy is below the dynamic policies. Move it below the policy template if necessary.

[admin@rack2_10g1] /ip ipsec policy> print
Flags: T - template, X - disabled, D - dynamic, I - inactive, * - default
0 T * group=default src-address=::/0 dst-address=::/0 protocol=all
proposal=default template=yes

1 D src-address=1.1.1.1/32 src-port=1701 dst-address=10.5.130.71/32
dst-port=any protocol=udp action=encrypt level=require
ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=no sa-src-address=1.1.1.1
sa-dst-address=10.5.130.71

2 src-address=1.1.1.1/32 src-port=1701 dst-address=0.0.0.0/0
dst-port=any protocol=udp action=discard level=unique
ipsec-protocols=esp tunnel=yes sa-src-address=1.1.1.1
sa-dst-address=0.0.0.0 proposal=default manual-sa=none

Manually specifying local-address parameter under Peer configuration

Using different routing table

IPsec, as any other service in RouterOS, uses the main routing table regardless of what local-address parameter is used for Peer configuration. It is necessary to apply routing marks to both IKE and IPSec traffic.

Consider the following example. There are two default routes - one in the main routing table and another in the routing table "backup". It is necessary to use the backup link for the IPsec site to site tunnel.

[admin@pair_r1] > /ip route print detail 
Flags: X - disabled, A - active, D - dynamic, C - connect, S - static, r - rip, b - bgp, o - ospf, m - mme, B - blackhole, U - unreachable, P - prohibit 
0 A S dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=10.155.107.1 gateway-status=10.155.107.1 reachable via ether1 distance=1 scope=30 target-scope=10 routing-mark=backup 

1 A S dst-address=0.0.0.0/0 gateway=172.22.2.115 gateway-status=172.22.2.115 reachable via ether2 distance=1 scope=30 target-scope=10 

2 ADC dst-address=10.155.107.0/25 pref-src=10.155.107.8 gateway=ether1 gateway-status=ether1 reachable distance=0 scope=10 

3 ADC dst-address=172.22.2.0/24 pref-src=172.22.2.114 gateway=ether2 gateway-status=ether2 reachable distance=0 scope=10 

4 ADC dst-address=192.168.1.0/24 pref-src=192.168.1.1 gateway=bridge-local gateway-status=ether2 reachable distance=0 scope=10 

[admin@pair_r1] > /ip firewall nat print 
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 
0 chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether1 log=no log-prefix="" 

1 chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether2 log=no log-prefix="" 

IPsec peer and policy configurations are created using the backup link's source address, as well as the NAT bypass rule for IPsec tunnel traffic.

/ip ipsec peer
add address=10.155.130.136/32 local-address=10.155.107.8 secret=test
/ip ipsec policy
add sa-src-address=10.155.107.8 src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 sa-dst-address=10.155.130.136 tunnel=yes
/ip firewall nat
add action=accept chain=srcnat src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 place-before=0

Currently, we see "phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" errors in the log. It is because IPsec tries to reach the remote peer using the main routing table with an incorrect source address. It is necessary to mark UDP/500, UDP/4500, and ipsec-esp packets using Mangle:

/ip firewall mangle
add action=mark-connection chain=output connection-mark=no-mark dst-address=10.155.130.136 dst-port=500,4500 new-connection-mark=ipsec passthrough=yes protocol=udp
add action=mark-connection chain=output connection-mark=no-mark dst-address=10.155.130.136 new-connection-mark=ipsec passthrough=yes protocol=ipsec-esp
add action=mark-routing chain=output connection-mark=ipsec new-routing-mark=backup passthrough=no

Using the same routing table with multiple IP addresses

Consider the following example. There are multiple IP addresses from the same subnet on the public interface. Masquerade rule is configured on out-interface. It is necessary to use one of the IP addresses explicitly.

[admin@pair_r1] > /ip address print 
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 
# ADDRESS NETWORK INTERFACE
0 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.1.0 bridge-local
1 172.22.2.1/24 172.22.2.0 ether1
2 172.22.2.2/24 172.22.2.0 ether1
3 172.22.2.3/24 172.22.2.0 ether1

[admin@pair_r1] > /ip route print 
Flags: X - disabled, A - active, D - dynamic, C - connect, S - static, r - rip, b - bgp, o - ospf, m - mme, B - blackhole, U - unreachable, P - prohibit 
# DST-ADDRESS PREF-SRC GATEWAY DISTANCE
1 A S 0.0.0.0/0 172.22.2.115 1
3 ADC 172.22.2.0/24 172.22.2.1 ether1 0
4 ADC 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 bridge-local 0

[admin@pair_r1] /ip firewall nat> print 
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid, D - dynamic 
0 chain=srcnat action=masquerade out-interface=ether1 log=no log-prefix="" 

IPsec peer and policy configuration is created using one of the public IP addresses.

/ip ipsec peer
add address=10.155.130.136/32 local-address=172.22.2.3 secret=test
/ip ipsec policy
add sa-src-address=172.22.2.3 src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 sa-dst-address=10.155.130.136 tunnel=yes
/ip firewall nat
add action=accept chain=srcnat src-address=192.168.1.0/24 dst-address=172.16.0.0/24 place-before=0

Currently, the phase 1 connection uses a different source address than we specified, and "phase1 negotiation failed due to time up" errors are shown in the logs. This is because masquerade is changing the source address of the connection to match the pref-src address of the connected route. The solution is to exclude connections from the public IP address from being masqueraded.

/ip firewall nat
add action=accept chain=srcnat protocol=udp src-port=500,4500 place-before=0
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